LUKS: Formatting the Partition | Infosec Resources (2023)


When writing this tutorial, I’ve referenced the [2] Gentoo Linux guide and added some of my own observations and scripts. This guide should provide you with steps of how you can create an encrypted system partition on Linux, but it will also provide you with general observations about doing just that. If you read this article series, you’ll gain some knowledge of what is needed to encrypt your system partition as well as the knowledge of the booting processes under Linux. We’ll talk about LUKS, LVM, Grub, Gentoo and Initrd.

It’s often the case that we may lose our laptops, or that they get stolen. In such cases, the only real protection against data leakage is disk encryption. We need to ensure that even if we lose the laptop or the laptop is stolen, that attackers won’t be able to access our data stored on the hard drive.

We’ll be using block device encryption, which protects the data on a block device by encrypting it. To access the device’s decrypted contents, a user must provide a password or key as authentication.

There are a number of alternatives we could use when encrypting the whole system partitions, which can be seen here: [1]. The best known encryption software products are Truecrypt and LUKS. Truecrypt is well known for having good support for Windows users. If we want to encrypt our whole Windows system partition, we should choose Truecrypt for our encrypting software, since we can do it easily with just a few clicks. However, the Truecrypt support in Linux is lacking; we can’t encrypt the whole system partition with Truecrypt, which is its main drawback. Thus, we have to turn to alternative encryption software, such as LUKS, which is most well-known encryption program on Linux.

Since this article talks about encrypting partitions on Linux, we’ll be using the LUKS software to encrypt our system partition. In addition to LUKS, which does the encryption part, we’ll also be using the LVM, which can manage disk drives with ease. When using LVM, we’re not bound to our hardware partitions, but we’re rather using software logical volumes (software partitions), which is very scalable.

LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) is a specification for block device encryption. It establishes an on-disk format for the data, as well as passphrase/key management policy. LUKS uses the kernel device mapper subsystem via the dm-crypt module, which handles encryption and decryption of the device’s data. User-level operations, such as creating and accessing encrypted devices, are accomplished through the use of the cryptsetup utility.

When we try to access the encrypted device after installation, we’ll be presented with a password prompt. After the correct password has been provided, the system will continue to boot normally. If we used different passwords for multiple encrypted devices, we may need to enter more than one password during the startup of the Linux system.

First things first: we need to have the needed ciphers to be present in the kernel. We can execute the command below to check whether the cipher is available on the system or not:

# cat /proc/crypto | grep name
name : cbc(serpent)
name : cbc(serpent)
name : stdrng
name : lzo
name : arc4
name : aes
name : tnepres
name : serpent
name : twofish
name : blowfish
name : des3_ede
name : des
name : wp256
name : wp384
name : wp512
name : sha512
name : sha384
name : sha256
name : sha224
name : sha1
name : rmd160
name : md5
name : md4
name : twofish
name : aes

There are multiple ciphers available: aes, twofish, etc.

Note that when the encryption is in use, we need to turn off write caching for our disk. We need to do this because write caching stores I/O data on its own volatile memory before writing it to the disk. So in the event of a power failure, data loss and filesystem corruption might occur. If we’re applying the encryption on laptop, we need to make sure to shutdown/suspend the system when it’s low on battery.

We’ll use the cryptsetup command to setup cryptographic volumes for dm-crypt (including LUKS). LUKS is a standard for hard disk encryption – it standardizes a partition header, as well as the format of the data.

Preparing the Disk

From now on, we’ll assume we’re already in a livecd or some other linux distribution and we have at least one partition, which will be prepared for the new system encrypted partition. In our case, we have partition /dev/sda1 available:

(Video) How To Use Linux LUKS Full Disk Encryption For Internal / External / Boot Drives

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/sda1 63 78124094 39062016 83 Linux

It’s also a good idea to check the hard drive for bad blocks:

# badblocks -c 10240 -s -w -t random -v /dev/sda1

Checking for bad blocks in read-write mode
From block 0 to 39062015
Testing with random pattern: done
Reading and comparing: done
Pass completed, 0 bad blocks found

The above command can be explained as follows: test 10240 blocks at a time (-c 10240), show the progress of the scan (-s), use write-mode test, which writes some bytes on every block of the partition, then reading every block back and comparing the contents (-w), use random test pattern to be read and written to disk blocks (-t random) and use verbose mode (-v). All of this is done on our partition /dev/sda1.

Now let’s fill the disk with random data using the /dev/urandom, which will make it impossible to know how much data has been written (when we start storing encrypted data on the disk). Therefore, breaking it becomes much harder.

# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/sda1

Create the partitioning scheme:

/boot /dev/sda1
swap /dev/sda2
/ /dev/sda3

DM-Crypt works by transparently translating between a physical partition, which is encrypted, and a logical partition, which we can mount and use normally. The physical root partition will be /dev/sda3 and the logical unencrypted partition will be /dev/mapper/root.

We need to load a few modules. The ones we load depend on the cipher we plan to use.


# modprobe dm-crypt

# modprobe dm-mod

# modprobe serpent

(Video) 021 - How To Encrypt Linux Filesystems Using LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) | RHEL 8

# modprobe sha256

# modprobe blowfish

# modprobe aes


Formatting the Device as LUKS Encrypted Device

We can initialize a LUKS partition and set up initialization key by passing luksFormat to the cryptsetup command. To create a mapping for a partition with cryptsetup using a password, we can execute the command below:

# cryptsetup –verify-passphrase –cipher serpent-cbc-essiv:sha256 –key-size 256 luksFormat /dev/sda3

This will overwrite data on /dev/sda3 irrevocably.

Are you sure? (Type uppercase yes): YES
Enter LUKS passphrase:
Verify passphrase:

The cryptsetup asked us if we are sure we want to encrypt the partition and we had to confirm by typing an uppercase YES into the command prompt. After that, we supplied the password, which is used to encrypt/decrypt the partition. We don’t necessarily have to use a password to protect our partition, but we can use a keyfile or a gpg protected keyfile. The commands for both those cases can be seen below:

To create a mapping for a partition with cryptsetup using keyfile:

# cryptsetup –verify-passphrase –cipher serpent-cbc-essiv:sha256 –key-size 256 luksFormat /dev/sda3 rootkey

To create a mapping for a partition with cryptsetup using gpg protected keyfile:

# gpg –quiet –decrypt rootkey.gpg | cryptsetup –verify-passphrase –cipher serpent-cbc-essiv:sha256 –key-size 256 luksFormat /dev/sda3

We can use any of the three options presented above, but using a password is the best option in my option, at least for laptop users. If you use any other option you’ll have a more secure system (because the chosen password can be weak and easily bruteforacable, while a keyfile cannot be bruteforced in real time), but you’re sacrifice simplicity.

(Video) Ubuntu 20.04 Tutorial: Ubuntu Full Disk Encryption Install With LUKS

After supplying the password or key, the device will be formatted for use. To verify if that is true, we can execute the command below, which will output ‘Yes’ if the partition has indeed been encrypted or ‘No’ if some error occurred:

# cryptsetup isLuks /dev/sda3; if [[ $? == 0 ]]; then echo "Yes"; else echo "No"; fi

To see a summary of the information about our encrypted device we can execute the luksDump command as follows:

# cryptsetup luksDump /dev/sda3
LUKS header information for /dev/sda3

Version: 1
Cipher name: serpent
Cipher mode: cbc-essiv:sha256
Hash spec: sha1
Payload offset: 2056
MK bits: 256
MK digest: 16 2d 07 4b a5 ec 9b 84 14 45 1c 1d ad a9 3a 43 dd 00 d6 65
MK salt: aa 28 fc 71 e8 51 dc 12 40 bd 70 83 00 51 27 da
ef 83 37 11 27 f4 80 5d 76 19 29 31 cc 8b 17 14
MK iterations: 47625
UUID: bc883c93-ad97-4cb0-a6b2-07e0c5e918d5

Key Slot 0: ENABLED
Iterations: 190775
Salt: f6 cb b8 66 e4 ad bf c5 14 7c 20 7a 20 93 75 aa
74 51 3d e3 10 23 18 11 c4 fc f3 54 e7 07 38 e9
Key material offset: 8
AF stripes: 4000
Key Slot 1: DISABLED
Key Slot 2: DISABLED
Key Slot 3: DISABLED
Key Slot 4: DISABLED
Key Slot 5: DISABLED
Key Slot 6: DISABLED
Key Slot 7: DISABLED

We can see that there are 8 key slots that can be used with each LUKS encrypted device. Currently, only the key slot 0 is in use, because we only supplied a password. We can fill optional number of key slots and then use multiple techniques to decrypt the partition. We could also add a keyfile into key slot 1 and decrypt the partition with a keyfile stored on USB drive. If we forgot the USB key somewhere or if we lost it, we could still decrypt the partition with a password stored in key slot 0.

Opening LUKS Partition

To access the device’s decrypted contents, mapping must be established using the kernel device-mapper. It’s useful to choose a meaningful name for this mapping. LUKS provides a UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) for each device. To find a LUKS device’s UUID, we can run the command below:

# cryptsetup luksUUID /dev/sda3

To open a LUKS partition which uses passwords, we need to run the following command:

# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 <strong>system</strong>

To open a LUKS partition that uses a keyfile:

# cryptsetup –key-file rootkey luksOpen /dev/sda3<strong> system</strong>

To open a LUKS partition which uses a gpg protected keyfile:

(Video) Encrypt a Partition with luksformat in Linux - BASH

# gpg –decrypt keyfile.gpg 2>/dev/null | cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 <strong>system</strong>

Upon completion the above command, there will be a mapping in /dev/mapper/system. From now on, every time we need to operate on our system partition /dev/sda3 we need to do so using /dev/mapper/system, which represents the decrypted block device.

To see some information about the mapped device, we can use:

# dmsetup info system
Name: system
Read Ahead: 3072
Tables present: LIVE
Open count: 0
Event number: 0
Major, minor: 253, 1
Number of targets: 1
UUID: CRYPT-LUKS1-bc883c93ad974cb0a6b207e0c5e918d5-system

Creating a FileSystem on a Mapped Device

We must use mapped device node /dev/mapper/system as any other block device. To create an ext3 filesystem on the mapped device, we can use the following command:

# mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/system

To mount the filesystem on /mnt mountpoint, we can run the command below:

# mount /dev/mapper/system /mnt


We’ve successfully encrypted the whole /dev/sda3 partition and created a mapping between /dev/sda3 and /dev/mapper/system. We also created an ext3 filesystem on the decrypted partition /dev/mapper/system and mounted it on the /mnt mountpoint. Now we can freely copy/move and delete files in the /mnt directory and when the partition is unmounted, all the contents of that partition are encrypted and safely stored. If we later want to mount the partition again, we must first open it with cryptsetup and provide a password for the system to be able to access the contents of the partition. This ensures that a password is needed whenever we try to access the partition’s contents.


[1]: Comparison of disk encryption software, Wikipedia, accessible at

[2]: DM-Crypt with LUKS, accessible at


How do I resize my LUKS encrypted partition? ›

To shrink encrypted LUKS partition you can use lvreduce command. Make sure the disk is unmounted, so this must be done when there is no need for activity on the disk. Execute lvreduce with the size of the LUKS volume which you wish to have after shrinking.

What is a LUKS partition? ›

Description. LUKS is used to encrypt a block device. The contents of the encrypted device are arbitrary, and therefore any filesystem can be encrypted, including swap partitions.

Is LUKS full disk encryption? ›

What LUKS does. Encrypts entire block devices and is therefore well suited for protecting the contents of mobile devices such as removable storage media or Notebook disk drives. The underlying contents of the encrypted block device are arbitrary, making it useful for encrypting swap devices.

How do I completely format a drive in Linux? ›

Formatting Disk Partition with NTFS File System
  1. Run the mkfs command and specify the NTFS file system to format a disk: sudo mkfs -t ntfs /dev/sdb1. ...
  2. Next, verify the file system change using: lsblk -f.
  3. Locate the preferred partition and confirm that it uses the NFTS file system.
2 Dec 2020

How do I format my driver? ›

PC Instructions
  1. Select the drive you wish to format from the list.
  2. Right click on the drive and select Format.
  3. Enter a name for the drive in Volume label and select the format type in the File system dropdown box.
  4. Click OK. It will take a short while to delete all the files and change the format of the disk.

Can partitions be resized? ›

Double-click Storage. Double-click Disk Management. In the list, right-click the partition to expand and select Extend Volume. Follow the prompts to resize the partition and click Finish.

Is it safe to resize partition Linux? ›

Resizing partitions really shouldn't be much of an issue as long as you follow these steps. Of course, it's still best if you back up all of your data before you make any changes. Chances are, GParted won't mess up on you, but there's a chance you might accidentally click on the wrong drive.

Can you resize LUKS? ›

You can also use GParted GUI tool to resize LUKS partition, which may be easier and quicker for beginners.

Does LUKS slow computer? ›

No, it doesn't slow down the "computer" (CPU) at all - it does however slow down the read/write speeds of your hard disk. Depending on the program, and what kind of disk it is, read/write could slow down anything from nothing to 30%.

Can LUKS encryption be broken? ›

Both Hashcat and John the Ripper support password cracking of LUKS passphrases, but they are both limited to what cipher/hashing/LUKS[12] they support. If you're lucky enough that you need to recover passphrase from some older LUKS encryption, you can use both tools.

Is LUKS a filesystem? ›

Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) is a specification for block device encryption. It establishes an on-disk format for the data, as well as a passphrase/key management policy. LUKS uses the kernel device mapper subsystem with the dm-crypt module.

Can LUKS be decrypted? ›

Decrypting LUKS2 devices in-place. Decryption can be done in either offline or online mode, using the cryptsetup command.

How strong is LUKS encryption? ›

By default in a Red Hat 8 Linux environment, LUKS uses a highly secure 512-bit AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) key. Encrypted LUKS volumes contain multiple key slots, allowing users to add backup keys or passphrases, plus use features such as key revocation and protection for bad passphrases using Argon2.

Is LUKS stable? ›

Please be aware that the LUKS UI components within Rockstor hide quite a bit of complexity and are currently in the early stages of development. But the LUKS system itself is stable.

How do I format all partitions? ›

Open Computer Management by selecting the Start button. The select Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management. In the left pane, under Storage, select Disk Management. Right-click the volume that you want to format, and then select Format.

How do I format a partition? ›

Follow the steps below to format a drive:
  1. STEP 1: Open Command Prompt As Administrator. Opening the command prompt. ...
  2. STEP 2: Use Diskpart. Using diskpart. ...
  3. STEP 3: Type List Disk. ...
  4. STEP 4: Select the Drive to Format. ...
  5. STEP 5: Clean the Disk. ...
  6. STEP 6: Create Partition Primary. ...
  7. STEP 7: Format the Drive. ...
  8. STEP 8: Assign a Drive Letter.
17 Aug 2018

What is the best disk format for Linux? ›

Some of the most popular filesystems for Linux include: Ext4 - Ext4 is a common default filesystem on many modern Linux distributions. It supports file sizes up to 16TB and volumes up to 1EB. It is not supported on Windows by default.

Does formatting a drive improve performance? ›

Technically speaking, the answer is Yes, formatting your laptop would make it faster. It will clean your computer's hard drive and wipe all the cache files. What's more, if you format your laptop and upgrade it to the latest version of Windows, it would bring you an even better result.

Will formatting a drive fix it? ›

Whether it is an internal hard disk or an external hard drive, there are solutions to repair a corrupted hard disk. The most straightforward way to fix a corrupt hard disk is by formatting it, which will cause data loss.

What is the best drive format? ›

FAT32 – The Most Compatible Option

The FAT or File Allocation Table is quite possibly the most widely-supported disk format in existence today.

Is it better to have 2 partitions or 1? ›

2. if you just backup data, have two partitions–one for Windows and installed application programs (usually C:), the other for data (usually D:). Except for those running multiple operating systems, there is seldom any benefit to having more than two partitions.

What are the 3 levels of partitioning? ›

Composite Range-Range Partitioning. Composite Range-Hash Partitioning. Composite Range-List Partitioning.

Do partitions improve performance? ›

Partitioning can also improve the performance of multi-table joins by using a technique known as partition-wise joins.

Can I resize a partition without losing data Linux? ›

Removing or creating a partition doesn't remove a data or a filesystem on a disk. It will only update the MBR or GPT information where partition lies and its size.

Does resizing partition delete data? ›

Yes, the resizing partition can be subdivided into extending and shrinking partitions. Both operations don't delete data. Q2: What does it mean to shrink a volume? Hard drive shrinking is the practice of reducing the size of your partition to create unallocated space that you can use elsewhere.

What does resizing a partition do? ›

Resizing partition is a process to re-allocate the disk space in Windows PC so as to extend or shrink partitions, making full use of unallocated spaces on a hard drive or SSD. For example, when the C drive is out of space, you need to resize another partition and add free space into C drive so as to fix this issue.

Does LUKS use LVM? ›

LUKS can be used alongside LVM to create expandable/encrypted volumes. While there are multiple approaches to configuring the volumes, one of the more robust and expandable options is to create an encrypted volume inside a logical volume. To do this: create a volume group of one or more disks.

Does LUKS encryption affect performance? ›

Overhead of the LUKS/dm-crypt encryption is minimal. It will add a little CPU load when reading or writing data (every block you read or write is encrypted or decrypted on the fly), but it is negligible (you can check for example this Phoronix article with benchmarks).

Is it safe to resize ext4? ›

Yes, it is safe.

Does LUKS slow down performance? ›

On AES-NI-compatible CPUs, LUKS encryption costs more intensive CPU usage (which can be visible, especially if the computer works in graphical mode, or runs other CPU-intensive applications), but shouldn't slow down I/O processes.

Does LUKS use TPM? ›

Data-at-rest encryption with LUKS. There are two methods for unlocking a LUKS volume using a TPM. You can use Clevis or #systemd-cryptenroll. Using either method, an encrypted volume or volumes may be unlocked using keys stored in a TPM, either automatically at boot or manually at a later time.

Does encryption take more space? ›

Encrypting file data at rest makes an encrypted copy of your file data while leaving the unenrypted file data temporarily in place, which essentially doubles the space needed for vault file data on the disk. Thus enabling encryption requires at least double the amount of disk space that your vault file data takes.

What is the hardest encryption to break? ›

AES 256-bit encryption is the strongest and most robust encryption standard that is commercially available today. While it is theoretically true that AES 256-bit encryption is harder to crack than AES 128-bit encryption, AES 128-bit encryption has never been cracked.

What is the most unbreakable encryption? ›

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a type of symmetric encryption that is considered both the most unbreakable algorithm and the global standard of security.

Is it illegal to break encryption? ›

If breaking encryption exposes consumers to significant security vulnerabilities, regulators will likely have a very strong case for an unfairness violation.

Where is Luks key stored? ›

LUKS keys are used to access the real encryption key. They are stored in slots in the header of the (encrypted) partition, disk or file.

Is LUKS an AES? ›

The default cipher used for LUKS is aes-xts-plain64 . The default key size for LUKS is 512 bits.

Which is faster XFS or Ext4? ›

For anything with higher capability, XFS tends to be faster. XFS also consumes about twice the CPU-per-metadata operation compared to Ext3 and Ext4, so if you have a CPU-bound workload with little concurrency, then the Ext3 or Ext4 variants will be faster.

Which is better encrypted or decrypted? ›

Encryption is a process which transforms the original information into an unrecognizable form. Decryption is a process of converting encoded/encrypted data in a form that is readable and understood by a human or a computer. Encryption method helps you to protect your confidential data such as passwords and login id.

How do I decrypt LUKS encrypted files? ›

Open its context menu and pick the "Dercypt encrypted storage" option. Choose the "LUKS metadata" decryption technique and enter the correct decryption password.

Can hackers decrypt encrypted data? ›

The simple answer is yes, encrypted data can be hacked.

How long does it take to crack LUKS? ›

So, for a single LUKS passphrase crack we're talking, on average, of about 10^{12} core-seconds. A core-year is about 3 * 10^{7} seconds. So, with a single core the brute-force would take, on average, about 10^{5} years.

How long does it take to encrypt 1GB? ›

Your CPU is working at 2.2 GHz, in other word 2.2×109 cycles per second. To encrypt 1GB you need 1.3×230 cycles. In other word, it would take 1.3×2302.2×109=0.634 seconds.

Is it better to always encrypt data? ›

This is one of the reasons why we recommend you use Always Encrypted to protect truly sensitive data in selected database columns. One thing to call out is the fact that by encrypting data on the client-side, Always Encrypted also protects the data, stored in encrypted columns, at rest and in transit.

Does LUKS slow down Linux? ›

Yes, performance drop is typically expected perhaps in any encrypted system including LUKS.

Is LUKS symmetric? ›

LUKS uses symmetric ciphers (encryption and decryption use the same key). RSA is an asymmetric cryptosystem, which uses a key to encrypt and another to decrypt.

Is LUKS FIPS compliant? ›

As garethTheRed alluded to in a comment, LUKS used a non FIPS approved algorithm, so when FIPS was enabled things went bonkers.

How do I remove LUKS encryption from a drive? ›

Cleaning up Persistent entries
  1. Remove the Luks Key from partition or Disk. Once done with removing entries remove the added key using “luksRemoveKey“. ...
  2. Remove the Crypt password stored in a file. ...
  3. Close the Luks Device: ...
  4. Remove the Logical volume used as the encrypted disk.
30 Apr 2022

How do you decrypt a LUKS drive? ›

Decrypting LUKS2 devices in-place
  1. Verify that your block device has a LUKS2 header (and not LUKS1) using cryptsetup luksDump dev.
  2. Note what key slots are in use using cryptsetup luksDump dev.
  3. Reboot into a live environment using a USB stick.
  4. Identify your block device using blkid or lsblk .

How do I format my hard drive enclosure? ›

Plug in the drive and open Windows Explorer. Right-click the drive and choose Format from the drop-down menu. Select the file system you want, give your drive a name under “Volume label,” and make sure the Quick Format box is checked. Click Start, and the computer will reformat your drive.

How do I convert encrypted files to normal? ›

Right-click on the encrypted file and select Properties. In the General tab, select Advanced. Now, uncheck the Encrypt contents to secure data radio box and click on OK. You'll see another dialog box asking if you want to Apply changes to this folder or Apply changes to this folder, subfolders and files.

Is LUKS encrypted at rest? ›

Couchbase now supports LUKS disk encryption to secure your data at rest. Couchbase 7.0 puts a big focus on security, debuting support for both role-based access control (RBAC) for Scopes and Collections, and encryption of at-rest data via Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS).

Can police decrypt HDD? ›

In the US, the police cannot make you decrypt your data. They can ask you to, they can demand that you do so, they can lie and tell you that you will be in jail for weeks until you do so, but the police cannot make you decrypt your data. A Judge, however, can make that demand and the police can enforce that demand.

How do I format a partitioned drive? ›

To format an existing partition (volume)

The select Control Panel > System and Security > Administrative Tools, and then double-click Computer Management. In the left pane, under Storage, select Disk Management. Right-click the volume that you want to format, and then select Format.

Why is my hard drive not formatting? ›

If you're trying to format a hard disk or memory card and you've encountered the "Windows was unable to complete the formatting" error message, your disk might be in the RAW file system structure. This could be because the disk became corrupted or because a previous format went wrong.

Can you format an encrypted disk? ›

A: Yes. When you enabled or even locked BitLocker drive, USB, SD card, you can format it on your own. In most cases, you can easily format or even wipe a hard drive. However, if the hard drive or USB is encrypted with Windows BitLocker, things become a bit more complex.

Will I lose everything if I reset encrypted data? ›

I finally just went for the Reset Encrypted data plunge on my phone and it worked. All it does is reset your keychain. Photos, texts, and all others still intact.

Do I need to wipe an encrypted drive? ›

Encryption does offer the first level of data security. However, to be absolutely sure that your data is not recoverable, it is advisable to permanently wipe your drives before selling or recycling even if the data on them is encrypted.


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