Carpet is a textile floor covering that is distinguished from the more general term "rug" by being fixed to the floor surface and extending wall to wall. The earliest peoples covered the floors of their dwellings with animal skins, grass, or, later, woven reed mats. When people learned how to spin cotton and wool, woven mats of these materials largely replaced earlier coverings. Around 3000 B.C. Egyptians sewed brightly colored pieces of woolen cloth onto linen and placed it on their floors.
The first carpets of note were woven by nomads. The thick carpets were easy to transport and were placed over the sand floor of tent dwellings. Early looms were similarly easy to transport. Two forked branches were joined by a crosspiece holding the suspended warp, and a wooden bar was used to flatten binding weft threads, while the loose warp ends formed the carpet's pile. The Pazyryk carpet has been documented as the earliest hand loom carpet, dating back from 500 B.C. and discovered in a tomb located in the Alti Mountains in Central Asia.
From these early beginnings, carpet weaving rose to its highest art form in Turkey, Iran, India, and China. Using cotton, linen, or hemp as the foundation, and wool or silk as the luxurious pile, weavers would make a knot out of the pile thread, then form a row of knots that was tightly beaten down. The process was time-consuming: some of the finest handmade carpets have as many as 2,400 knots per square inch (372 knots per sq cm). The brilliant colors of these ancient carpets came from natural dyes such as madder, indigo, genista, woad, and ocher. Some weavers added alum to these dyes to fix the color, and a few wove gold and precious jewels into their carpets.
While Europeans for centuries eagerly received carpets ready-made from the Middle East, carpet making itself did not find a firm foothold on the continent until France imported Moorish weavers around A.D. 1300. By 1600, carpet guilds were flourishing around Aubusson and Savonnerie. England also imported Persian weavers, as well as French ones, and by 1700 both Wilton and Axminster, known for their wool, were chartered carpet-making towns. Carpet making in Europe started with the "Brussels weave" in France and Flanders. This weave is formed by putting yarn over rods to create uncut loops. Wilton carpets are cut by a blade that replaces the rod in the Brussels weave. In 1801, Joseph M. Jacquard invented a device for handlooms that used punch cards to place up to six varieties of yarn colors in textiles, thus increasing production. This technique was adopted for carpet looms in 1825.
The first carpet factory in the U.S. was built by William Sprague in Philadelphia in 1791. His looms, based on English inventions, could make 27-inch (69-cm) runners that could be sewn together to make larger carpets. By 1800, 6-8 yards (7-9 m) of carpet could be made in a day. Erastus Bigelow built a mill in 1825 in Clinton, Massachusetts, and invented the power loom in 1839, which doubled carpet production. He also invented the first broadloom in 1877. Power looms improved over the years; soon one loom could make 75 yards (82 m) of high quality carpet a day.
Synthetic yarns arrive at the carpet manufacturer either in staple fiber form or bulk continuous filament form. The staple fibers, which average 7 inches long, are loose, individual strands that arrive in bales.
Carpet production changed dramatically at the beginning of the 20th century, beginning inauspiciously with a burst of tufted bedspread production in Dalton, Georgia, led by young entrepreneur Catherine Evans Whitener. Tufting is the process of punching yarn into a ground fabric to create many uncut loops at a very fast pace. Tufted bed-spread factories dominated the Dalton area by World War II, and they soon began producing tufted rugs as well. Demand for these roughly made rugs was as great as that for the bedspreads. At first using cheap, readily available cotton before switching to synthetic yarns, the number of Dalton carpet makers grew as they produced great amounts of relatively easy-to-make broadloom tufted rugs and, eventually, carpets. Carpet, once a luxury, became affordable for most Americans. Today, carpet makes up 72% of all flooring, with tufted carpet being 91.5% of production, and the city of Dalton is responsible for over 70% of the world's production of carpet.
Carpet consists of dyed pile yarns; a primary backing in which the yarns are sewn; a secondary backing that adds strength to the carpet; adhesive that binds the primary and secondary backings; and, in most cases, a cushion laid underneath the carpet to give it a softer, more luxurious feel.
Ninety-seven percent of pile yarns today are made up of synthetic polymers; the rest of the yarns are wool and comprise the more expensive, woven carpet. Synthetics are plastics such as nylon (which is in 66% of all carpet), acrylics (15%), polyester (less than 15%), and polypropylene (less than 5%). These pile yarns are dyed using a variety of organic chemical compounds, or occasionally, organometallic complexes.
Both the primary and secondary backing are largely made of woven or nonwoven polypropylene, though some secondary backing may still be made of jute, a natural fiber that, when woven, looks like burlap. The adhesive used to bind the backings together is almost universally synthetic rubber latex. The most common padding is rebond (bonded urethane), though various forms of synthetic latex, polyurethane, or vinyl might be used instead. Rebond is recycled scrap urethane that is chopped into uniformly sized pieces and pressed into layers. Although rare, some carpet cushioning is made up of horse hair or jute. A plastic top sheet is usually added to the top to insure a smooth surface against the carpet.
Since most carpet in the U.S. is tufted; earlier methods of weaving carpet, such as Wilton and Axminster, are ignored in the following account.
Preparing the yarn
- 1 Synthetic yarns arrive at the carpet manufacturer either in staple fiber form or bulk
Dyeing the yarn
- 2 Most carpets are dyed after tufting, yet sometimes the yarns are dyed first. The methods include putting 500-1,000 pounds (227-455 kg) of fiber into pressurized vats
Tufting the carpet
- 3 The yarn is put on a creel (a bar with skewers) behind the tufting machine, then fed into a nylon tube that leads to the tufting needle. The needle pierces the primary backing and pushes the yarn down into a loop. Photoelectric sensors control how deeply the needles plunge into the backing, so the height of the loops can be controlled. A looper, or flat hook, seizes and releases the loop of yarn while the needle pulls back up; the backing is shifted forward and the needle once more pierces the backing further on. To make cut pile, a looper facing the opposite direction is fitted with a knife that acts like a pair of scissors, snipping the loop. This process is carried out by several hundred needles (up to 1,200 across the 12 foot [3.7 ml width), and several hundred rows of stitches are carried out per minute. One tufting machine can thus produce several hundred square yards of carpet a day.
Dyeing the tufted carpet
- 4 For solid color carpeting, carpet of several standard roll lengths is sewn together to make a continuous roll, which is then fed into a vat. The vat is filled with water, which is first heated before dyes and chemicals are mixed in. The mixture is then slowly brought to a boil and cooked for four hours. Another method of making solid color carpet is to sew several rows together to make one continuous roll, which is then fed under rods that bleed the color into the pile. After dyeing, the carpet is then steamed to fix the color, excess color is washed off, and the carpet is dried and put on a roll.
- 5 To make printed carpet of various designs, white carpet passes under screens in which holes in the desired pattern have been cut. The desired color is squeegeed through the holes in the screen, and the carpet is advanced 36 inches (91 cm) to a different screen that applies a new color in a different design through the screen. Up to eight colors can be applied with this method.
- 6 Another method of dyeing printed carpet is to pass it under embossed cylinders that have raised portions in a design, which press color into the carpet. Each cylinder provides a different design for a different color. After dyeing, the printed carpet is steamed, excess dyes are washed off, and the carpet is then dried and put onto rolls to go to the finishing department.
Finishing the carpet
- 7 The ends of the dyed carpet are first sewn together to form a continuous belt. This belt is then rolled under a dispenser that spreads a coating of latex onto the bottom of the carpet.
At the same time, a strong secondary backing is also coated with latex. Both of these are then rolled onto a marriage roller, which forms them into a sandwich and seals them together.
The carpet is then placed in an oven to cure the latex.
- 8 The completed carpet is then steamed, brushed, vacuumed, and run through a machine that clips off any tufts that rise above its uniform surface. The carpet is then rolled into 120 foot (37 m) lengths that are then packaged in strong plastic and shipped to either the carpet manufacturer's inventory warehouse or to a retail carpet store.
Every piece of carpet that is tufted is inspected to see if any tufts are missing. One person with a single needle tufting gun shoots pile yarn wherever holes are found. Each piece of carpet is then inspected. The manufacturer checks that the piece is of the proper dimensions and that the tuft height is of the desired length. The static shock potential is also tested.
Most states require a flammability test. A prepared 9 × 9 inch (23 × 23 cm) specimen is placed on a steel plate that has a hole 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter in its middle. A methenamine tablet is ignited in the center. If the charred portion in seven out of eight trials does not reach to the circumference of the hole, the carpet passes. Another important test determines the carpet's resistance to wear. A specimen of carpet is placed in a drum and beaten with a steel ball that has rubber studs on it for 20,000 to 50,000 revolutions. The carpet should look fairly new after this test. To test how the carpet's color stands up to sunlight, a standard light source that simulates sunlight is directed at a specimen, which is then rated according to the number of units of exposure required to produce visible loss of color.
The mass per unit area of pile yarn is a significant test because pile density determines the feel of the carpet. First, the synthetic yarn is removed from the carpet, either by physical means (it is ripped off the primary backing) or chemical means (it is dissolved off). The yarn is then dissolved in a solvent, then dried in an oven to remove the solvent. The dry residue is then weighed and checked to see if the mass is as specified for that type of carpet. Each type of synthetic fiber has its own recipe. Nylon, the most commonly used synthetic yarn, is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and dried 15 minutes at 77°F (25°C).
Backing fabrics and carpet padding are tested for strength by being pulled in a vise until they break. The primary backing's strength is checked both before and after tufting. The delamination strength of the secondary backing is also tested by determining at what force the secondary backing can be pulled away from the primary backing.
Part of the quality control process is up to the customer, who must select carpet of the proper strength and durability for the amount of traffic expected in the room, vacuum regularly, and have the carpet professionally deep cleaned at least once a year.
Where To Learn More
Deaton, Thomas M. Bedspreads to Broadloom: The Story of the Tufted Carpet Industry. Tapestry Press, 1993.
Ellis, Robert Y. The Complete Book of Floor Coverings. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.
Garstein, A.S. The How- To Handbook of Carpets. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.
Revere, Glenn. All About Carpets: A Consumer Guide. TAB Books, 1988.
Shoshkes, Lila. Contract Carpeting. Billboard, 1974.
Von Rosensteil, Helene. American Rugs & Carpets. William Morrow & Co., 1978.
"New Technology in Carpeting." American Dyestuff Reporter, February 1992, p. 10.
"Magic Carpets." The Economist, November 7, 1992, p. 108.
"Carpet Machine Bonds Yarn to Backing Without Sewing." Machine Design, January 21, 1988, p. 56.
"Floor Covering." Textile World, June 1993, p. 60+.
— Rose Secrest
The major raw material used for the carpet making is the yarn which is made of wool. Yarn is either procured from local spinning mills or from Bikaner and Surat through traders. The Tibetan wool has a strong, good fibre length, good luster and a high resilient value.
Carpets can be produced on a loom quite similarly to woven fabric, made using needle felts, knotted by hand (in oriental rugs), made with their pile injected into a backing material (called tufting), flatwoven, made by hooking wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric, or embroidered.
Several machines like Carpet Loom, Scrapping Machine, Drying Machine, and Tools used in carpet manufacturing have been developed and tested in many carpet manufacturing belts, namely, Bhadohi, Mirzapur, Jaipur, Srinagar and other places of India.
The carpet industry is known for the creation of high-fashion, style, and performance-based products. This is accomplished by consuming readily available, and until recently, virgin feedstocks, and converting them into final products.
In colder climates or seasons, carpet retains warm air longer than other flooring types. In addition to keeping your home cozy in the winter, this attribute conserves energy. Carpet also provides a comfortable place to sit, play, or work and gives a room an overall warmer feeling.
There are many types of fiber used in carpet, but the most common are nylon, polyester, polypropylene, acrylic, and wool. Carpets are made by looping the fiber yarns through the backing material in a manner similar to how a button is sewed onto a shirt.
Today, carpet mills located within a 65-mile radius of Dalton, Georgia, produce about 85% of the carpet sold in the U.S. market. The U.S. industry accounts for about 45% of the world's carpet production.
- Backing: The carpet backing refers to the underside piece of fabric in a roll of carpet. ...
- Fiber: ...
- Pile: ...
- Carpet Pad: ...
- Here are a few extra terms to guide you when you are ready to install carpet in your Painesville home.
- Pile height: ...
- Loop Pile: ...
- Cut Pile:
DIY Your Own Custom Rug!! Tufting Gun Tips + Tutorial for Beginners!
HOW TO USE A TUFTING GUN | & other tips for making a rug - YouTube
Its basically a commercial grade vacuum with a turbo... A Pile Lifter can literally remove up to 70% of soil, which is why it leads in soil removal over all cleaning methods.
Most carpeting is made from plastic fibers such as nylon, polypropylene or polyester. In recent years, manufacturers have been able to create carpet fiber from recycled plastics, such as the plastic used to make beverage bottles. It takes approximately 50 two-liter bottles to create one square yard of carpet fiber.
Cut pile is a style of carpet that is sheared, exposing the ends of the carpet fiber. Cut piles come in different lengths and thicknesses. They are the most popular styles of carpet today and tend to be softer underfoot and to touch than loop pile carpets. Cut pile carpets work well for a whole house type carpet.
Brintons Carpets - Crafting the Yarn - YouTube
Over ninety percent of. all of the carpet made today is made up of synthetic fiber.. Synthetic fibers are usually made up of one of three materials: nylon, polypropylene. or polyester.. The highest. performance nylon is Type 6.6, which has a tighter molecular construction, making. the carpet more resistant to stain penetration.. Polypropylene is most often used in loop pile carpet constructions.. This process results in what is called loop pile construction.. Pile height, or nap, is the length of the tuft measured from the primary. backing to the yarn tips.. Finally, density is a measure of how tightly the yarn is stitched into. the primary backing.. The first method of dyeing is called yarn dyeing, or sometimes pre-dyeing, where. the color is applied to the yarn prior to tufting.. In the finishing process, a coating of latex is applied to both the tufted, dyed. carpet’s primary backing, and also to secondary backing.. Secondary backing. is typically made of a woven synthetic polypropylene material.
"A Floor Covering which is made completely by human hands by Handknotting, Handtufting or Handweaving, in which handspun Yarn of natural fibers (most commonly wool or silk) is used, , with individual character and design.". Tibetan wool The Tibetan wool has a strong good fibre length is imported in scoured form, good lustre and a high resilient value.. Woollen Yarn Spinning Spinning involves two steps Carding and Spinning- Carding is sometimes done by hand with help of carding brush or on carding rollers run by hand.. The thickness of the yarn depends on the quality of the carpet and generally a 3 ply yarn is used.. Yarn Dyeing The traditional pot dyeing method has been largely replaced by machine dyeing in closed Chambers.. Designing When speaking about patterns and carpet manufacturing these are often divided into three categories; curvilinear, geometric and figural patterns.. These patterns can decorate a small part of a carpet or be used in an overall motif.. From the pattern on a carpet it is possible to see what style and also which origin the carpet has.. Raw Washing It is done as the first wash to clean the carpet and for. removal of dust and dirt or any stains on the carpet.. Shearing After carpet is washed the piles are cut to level them to same height.. Embossing is the process of cutting the borders of the motif on the carpet which gives detailing to the motif.. This way the motif seems to like protrude out of the background and gives a good look to the carpet.. Final Washing The carpet is washed for the final time.. Drying In traditional setup dyeing is done under the sun, but many manufacturers have drying machine which can control the tempreature and moisture of the carpet.. Final Clipping This is the finishing step in the manufacturing of carpet.
Flooring store featuring carpet, hardwood & laminate floors, ceramic tile, luxury vinyl tile & plank, area rugs. Serving Buffalo, Getzville, Amherst, Cheektowaga, Tonawanda, Lancaster
basic material of makeup 90% is synthetic fiber rest is natural fiber, mostly wool. next most common material is polypropylene introduced in the late 1950's in Italy BCF represents more than 35% of all fibers not as resilient or resistant to abrasion as nylon naturally stain and fade resistant naturally resistance to moisture more limited range of color options most often used in loop pile constructions. Mohawk makes from plastic bottles plastic is collected, separated by color, and then ground. and melted used to manufacture the PET carpet fiber carpets made by Mohawk of PET staple fiber made from 100%. recycled material great color clarity, stain resistance, durability keeps over 3 billion bottles out of landfills. The above three materials make up the majority of synthetic. fibers.. The other type of fiber used in carpet construction is. staple fiber.. begins with weaving the synthetic or staple fiber into a. primary backing material usually made of woven polypropylene main value is to provide a base cloth to hold the yarn. while tufting happens tufting machine has 800 to 2000 needles like a sewing. machine to pull the yarn through the primary backing material tufting machine is 12 feet wide, its needles penetrate the. backing and a small hook (looper) grabs the yarn and holds it. in place. yarn dyeing / pre-dyeing - color is applied to the yarn. prior to tufting advantages are good side-by-side color consistency, large. lot sizes, uniformity carpet dyeing - applying color to the yarn after tufting benefits - greater color flexibility
The Carpet Maker is able to produce carpets from 28 different materials either made from animals, plants or synthetically created depending on the customers.
Most of our carpets are made from natural materials and all are 100% biological out of respect for carpet manufacturing traditions.. If silk is the most expensive yarn and deserves its famous reputation as a textile yarn it is mostly because of its soft touch, its comfortable feeling and its shiny appearance compared to any other material.. Besides being the most elegant carpet yarn, silk has many advantages: it has strong mold resistance, it doesn't store static electricity and thanks to its filament fibers it doesn't shed, making silk the strongest natural material.. After considering animal-based carpet yarn, we move on to materials derived from plants.. Another natural carpet yarn made from plants is linen.. Furthermore it is a natural anti-bacterial yarn which makes it the healthiest plant fiber among carpet yarns.. If you like the shiny appearance and soft touch of silk but you don't want to sacrifice silkworms for your carpet and a synthetic silk such as K-Silk isn’t to your liking, then bamboo is the perfect material for you.. For our Premium Outdoor polypropylene yarns, the color dyeing is a part of the production process which means the dye is applied while the material is being created, opposite to other yarns where colors are added after the creation process.
More than 90% of the functional carpet produced in the world is made in and near Dalton, Georgia in Northwest Georgia, USA.
The single strands of yarn are usually twisted with other strands of yarn to make the final yarn.. There are several ways to make carpet from yarn: Tufting, weaving, knitting, needle punching, fusion bonding and flocking.. The yarn then usually goes to a tufting machine.. Weaving is making a carpet (or rug) on a loom with face yarns held in place by intertwining them with warp and weft yarns.. The Soumak weaving technique refers to a method of flat weaving where the wefts are passed over two or four warps and back under one or two warps.. In the Velvet loom, the pile yarn loops are formed over “wires”, one wire for each row of tufts.. Most carpet yarns have 2.5 to 6.0 twists per inch.
Combining science with art, carpet manufacturing creates a functional masterpiece seen on almost every show floor in the U.S. Located in the heart of the “Carpet Capital of the World” is Beaulieu of America, a family owned and operated manufacturer of carpet for residential, commercial and tradeshows. From the raw material to the finished product, […]
Located in the heart of the “Carpet Capital of the World” is Beaulieu of America, a family owned and operated manufacturer of carpet for residential, commercial and tradeshows.. From the raw material to the finished product, Beaulieu has produced and controlled every aspect of carpet-making at its 19 vertically integrated facilities in and around Dalton, Ga., since investing in yarn extrusion in 1981.. For example, with nylon, we take the chemicals, we make the chip, we extrude the chip into yarn, we cable and heat set the yarn, do the tufting, dyeing and coating.. While the plastic products produce stain-resistant and pliable fiber, the majority of carpets manufactured are made from nylon.. Polymerization converts liquid caprolactum into nylon chips, which are then turned into flat nylon yarn, a process costing millions of dollars.. Carpet fiber strength and appearance depend on the fiber twisting or cabling process.. To permanently set the fiber, two different types of heat are used – dry heat generated by electricity in ovens used for solution-dyed fiber, and steam to open the pores of undyed fiber for future dyeing.. Two layers of backing – primary and secondary – are needed to manufacture carpet.. Dubbed the “Carpet Capital of the World,” entrepreneurs in Dalton, Ga., discovered that while yarn can be stitched through a cotton bedspread to create chenille, stitching yarn through a different type of backing creates carpet.. Carpet is tufted from underneath and directly into one yard of primary backing then bonded with a sturdier, second yard of secondary backing.. A fiber strand is air suctioned into the back of the tufting machine where each strand is fed and threaded through a needle.. Imperfections in the tufting are removed from the carpet by hand by operators who perform quality control and also repair the fabric when a yarn breaks.. Depending on the carpet style, about 20 ounces of latex per square yard coats the secondary backing before it is bonded to the primary backing.. Shearing is the final process in carpet manufacturing when blades reduce the carpet to a specific pile height.. For over 15 years, Ellis works with both producers of carpet machinery and carpet manufacturers to exhibit their wares both domestically and internationally.
Project Report - Profile on hand made carpet manufacturing, Bank Loan, Feasibility Report, How Much Investment, Know How, Formulations, Profitable Business, How to Start, small scale industry, Manufacturing Business Idea, Small Business Ideas, How to Get ›
Project Report on hand made carpet manufacturing Provides Present Market Position and Expected Future Demand, Technology, Manufacturing Process, Investment Opportunity, Plant Economics and Project Financials. comprehensive analysis from industry covering
Detailed Project Report (DPR) on hand made carpet manufacturingDetailed Project Report (DPR) on hand made carpet manufacturing Present Market Position and Expected Future Demand, Technology, Manufacturing Process, Investment Opportunity, Plant Economics and Project Financials.. Each report include Plant Capacity, requirement of Land & Building, Plant & Machinery, Flow Sheet Diagram, Raw Materials detail with suppliers list, Total Capital Investment along with detailed calculation on Rate of Return, Break-Even Analysis and Profitability Analysis .. If you need, we can modify the project capacity and project cost based on your requirement.. Preliminary Expenses Pre-operative Expenses Provision for Contingencies Cost of Project and Means of Finance Assessment of Working Capital requirements Sources of Finance Break-Even Analysis and profitability analysis.. If you need customized project report, our consultants can prepare BANKABLE PROJECT REPORTS as per your requirement.. are particularly used in carpet wept yarn.
Choosing the right fiber and pile is an important part of selecting a new carpet. Know the benefits and drawbacks of each type to make the best choice.
Two characteristics of carpet are primary considerations when choosing a carpet: the type of natural or synthetic fiber used in the construction, and the pile —how the loops of fiber are attached to the carpet backing.. There are many types of fiber used in carpet, but the most common are nylon, polyester, polypropylene, acrylic, and wool.. Nylon is very soft, durable, and resistant to stains and abrasion.. Also known as olefin , polypropylene fibers are similar to natural wool and are often used as a synthetic wool substitute.. But it is not a very durable material, and it doesn't hold up well in high-traffic areas.. Also known as "uncut pile" or "Berber pile" (named for a particular type of knotted pile used in North Africa), loop pile leaves the entire yarn loop intact on the surface of the piece.. These carpets tend to be highly durable, easy to clean , and resistant to stains, making them perfect for high-traffic commercial applications or high-traffic family areas, such as recreation rooms.. Loop pile carpet comes in variations, such as level loop , where the fiber loops are all the same length, and patterned loops, where the loops are different heights.. Cut pile is a style of carpet where the exposed fibers are sheared off.. The term Saxony pile refers to a particular type of cut-pile carpet with fibers that are very soft and dense.. Sometimes called velvet-cut pile , this style is a variation of cut pile in which the fibers are even shorter than with a Saxony cut and very densely packed, which creates a rich and luxurious carpet surface.. The term frieze-cut pile refers to a carpet in which relatively long cut fibers are twisted together and kinked, causing them to curl erratically across the surface of the carpet.. A sculptured carpet has both looped and cut-pile fibers, which creates height and texture variations in the surface of the carpet.
Carpet Construction: How Carpets are Made 770-554-1555 Knowing How Carpets Are Made Can Be Very Beneficial for Your Flooring Plans A variety
Knowing the different raw materials that make up various carpets helps you understand and evaluate their performance aspects: why particular carpets are easier to install, why some wear better, longer, and why some carpets are easier to care for and clean.. The other type of fiber used in carpet manufacture is wool fiber.. While synthetic fibers are used in the manufacturing of most carpets today, the original fiber used in the making of carpet was wool.. In some carpet styles, the looper then rocks back against a knife, where the small loops of yarn are cut, creating what we call a cut pile carpet.. The stitch rate of a carpet is measured in penetrations, or tufts, in a given length of carpet, usually an inch.. The first technique, often referred to as Beck, or batch dyeing, involves stitching the ends of the carpet together and then running the tufted carpet loop through large vats of dye and water for several hours.. Continuous dyeing involves running the carpet through and under several dye heads that apply color directly to the carpet face via continual spraying or printing.