Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (2022)

This guide is developed in line with the book: Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  1. What is Harvard Citation Style?
  2. Why You Need to Сite Your Sources
  3. General Principles of Harvard Formatting
    1. Title Page
    2. Outline
    3. Headings and Subheadings
    4. Reference List Remarks
  4. Harvard Reference List
    1. Citing Books
    2. Citing Sacred Texts
    3. Citing Articles in Periodicals
    4. Citing Conferences
    5. Citing Dissertations/Theses
    6. Citing Websites
    7. Citing Lectures
    8. Citing Government Documents
  5. Harvard In-Text Citations
  6. Tables and Figures in Harvard Style

What is Harvard Citation Style?

The Harvard style is used in universities throughout the world regardless of their specific discipline. It is an author-date citation style, which means you have to mention the authors and the publication date for a paper to cite it in the paper body. In this tendency, it is most similar to the APA style and Author-Date Chicago, and MLA, Bluebook, and Vancouver share the same philosophy. However, it should be noted that there is considerable variation in the Harvard style, and so you should determine the specific guidelines you will follow before beginning work.

Why You Need to Сite Your Sources

Academic institutions throughout the world insist on the use of correctly formatted citations wherever possible, within the boundaries of reasonability. You should follow their requirements as precisely as possible for the following reasons:

  • By using citations, you integrate your work into the broader scholarly narrative and acknowledge the contribution of others in it. The reader can then see that your statements and findings are based on those of others, adding another level of confirmation.
  • You show your ability to research correctly, looking for trustworthy articles and interpreting their ideas correctly. While scholarly literature may be harder to find and obtain than a website link, it is usually more credible, and so you should search for it first and foremost.
  • You show your adherence to the format and general attentiveness to detail by referencing your sources correctly. Wrongly formatted references can make it hard for the reader to find the work and reduce their opinion of your paper.
  • If you do not cite properly, omitting references and creating the appearance that the findings are your own, you are likely to commit plagiarism. Most institutions that detect this will punish you heavily, up to and including expulsion or firing.

General Principles of Harvard Formatting

  • Arial 12 pt. font (unless the instructions require a different font)
  • 1” (2.54 cm) margins from all sides
  • alphabetical order of sources at the end of a document according to author’s surname or title (if no author). If you have cited more than one item by the same author, they should be listed chronologically (earliest first), and by letter (1996a 1996b) if more than one item has been published in the same year.
  • no indentation required on the harvard reference list
  • sentence case capitalization for book/article/chapter titles
  • single quotation marks in reference list

Harvard Title Page

Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (1)

Your title should be inserted in the upper half of the first page.

You should not use more than 12 words for your title.

Use upper and lower case (avoid abbreviations and redundant words).

Harvard title page should be double-spaced.

Insert the author’s name below the title.

Insert the educational institution below the author’s name.

Harvard Outline

There are 2 basic types of outlines for you to choose (unless your tutor gives you a template)

Simple outline (either alphanumeric or decimal)

Example of alphanumeric outline

Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (2)

Example of decimal outline

Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (3)

Example of full sentence outline

Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (4)

Harvard Headings and Subheadings

As a rule, two types of subheadings are used when formatting a paper in Harvard:

Level 1 – Centered, Capitalized, Not Bold, Not Italicized

Level 2 – Flush Left, Italicized, Capitalized, Not Bold

The reference list is inserted at the end of your paper; any source that you use needs to be included in the reference page and cited in the text.

Indent all lines after the first line in the entry (hanging indent); the lines should be indented one-half inch (1.27 cm) from the left margin of your paper.

  • Do not forget to invert authors’ names: Last Name, Initials. Example: Lankshear, C. and Knobel, M..
  • The reference list is always alphabetized by the first word in the reference entry (from A to Z).
  • When alphabetizing titles or group names as authors, go by the first significant word (disregard a, an, the)
  • In the titles of your sources (except journal, magazine, database titles), use sentence case capitalization.
  • Italicization is applied to books and periodical journals’ titles.
  • Single quotation marks are used for the titles of articles and book chapters.

Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (5)

Harvard Reference List

Harvard Citing Books

Single author

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. City: Publisher.

Example:

Sebold, A. (2002) The lovely bones. London: Hachette.

Two or three authors

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. City: Publisher.

Example:

Lankshear, C. and Knobel, M. (2006) New literacies: everyday practices and classroom learning. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Four or more authors

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. et al. (Year) Title of book. City: Publisher.

Example:

Evans, J. et al. (2003) Equal subjects, unequal rights: indigenous peoples in British settler societies. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Note:

  • List only the first author while others are represented by “et al.”

Corporate author

Structure:

Organization Name. (Year) Title of book. City: Publisher.

Example:

Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and New Zealand (2016) AASB 128 investments in associates and joint ventures. Sydney: Pearson Education.

Unknown author

Structure:

Title of book. (Year) City: Publisher.

Example:

The Oxford dictionary of abbreviations (1998) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Multiple works by the same author

King, S. (2008) The shining. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
King, S. (2010) Insomnia. London: Hachette.

Note:

  • On the Harvard Reference list, works by the same author are arranged by year of publication with the earliest work first.

Multiple works published in the same year by the same author

King, S. (2008a) The shining. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
King, S. (2008b) The stand. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Note:

  • Both in the in-text citations and on the Reference list, works published in the same year by the same author should be distinguished by adding an alphabetical designator to the publication date.

Different editions

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. 1st/2nd/3rd/#th edn. City: Publisher.

Example:

Feldman, R. (2011) Understanding psychology. 10th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Note:

  • When using any edition of the book other than the first one, use the publication date of that particular edition and make sure to add the edition number to the entry on the Reference list.

Author with an editor

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. Edited by Editor’s First Name Last Name. City: Publisher.

Example:

Howells, W. D. (1968) Their wedding journey. Edited by John K. Reeves. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Note:

  • Write editor(s) full first name(s) followed by last name.

Editor with no author

Structure:

Editor’s Last Name, Initials. (ed.) (Year) Title of book. City: Publisher.

Example:

Baker, R. (ed.) (1986) The Norton Book of Light Verse. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Note:

  • Use either (ed.) for one editor or (eds.) for two or more.

Translated book

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. Translated by Translator’s Initials Last Name. Introduction and notes by Initials Last Name. City: Publisher.

Example:

Homer (1997) The Odyssey. Translated by R. Fagles. Introduction and notes by B. Knox. London: Penguin Books.

Note:

(Video) How To Reference - Harvard Style Referencing Guide | Swinburne Online

  • Make sure to mention all contributors such as translators, editors, co-authors, or illustrators if mentioned on the book’s cover page.

Multi-volume book

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book (x vols.). City: Publisher.

Example:

Ersoy, A., Górny, M. and Kechriotis, V. (2010) Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770–1945: Texts and Commentaries (3 vols.). Budapest: Central European University Press.

If you cite a separate volume, use the following format:

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. Part x: Title. City: Publisher.

Example:

Ersoy, A., Górny, M. and Kechriotis, V. (2010) Discourses of Collective Identity in Central and Southeast Europe 1770–1945: Texts and Commentaries. Part 1: Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Collected works

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year–Year) Title of book (xx vols.). City: Publisher.

Example:

Jung, C.G. (1989–1995) Gesammelte werke (24 vols). Olten: Walter Verlag.

Chapter in an edited book

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Chapter title’, in Editor’s Last Name, Initials. (ed.) Title of book.City: Publisher, pp. xx-xx.

Example:

Johnson, J.L. and Repta, R. (2012) ‘Sex and gender: beyond the binaries’, in Oliffe, J.L. and Greaves, L.J. (eds.) Designing and conducting gender, sex, and health research. Los Angeles, LA: SAGE Publishing, pp. 17–37.

Note:

  • Use either (ed.) for one editor or (eds.) for two or more.
  • Remember to include chapter page numbers at the end of the entry.

E-book

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. Available at: http://www.link.com (Downloaded: Date Month Year).

Example:

Marr, A. (2012) A history of the world. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks

(Downloaded: 22 June 2018).

Book found online

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Title of book.Available at: http://www.link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Salinger, J.D. (1951) Catcher in the rye. Available at: https://www.tyrone.k12.pa.us/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=2789&dataid=3209&FileName=Catcher%20In%20The%20Rye.pdf (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Harvard Citing Sacred Texts

The Bible

Structure:

Book of the Bible chapter: verse, Holy Bible. Bible Edition.

Example:

Matthew 5: 3–12, Holy Bible. New International Edition.

Note:

  • Mention Book of the Bible first (not in italics), then chapter: verse, ‘Holy Bible.” (not in Italics) and version of the Bible you have read.
  • Do not include place of publication or publisher.

The Torah

Structure:

Torah. Book Title chapter: verse.

Example:

Torah. Shernot 3: 14.

Note:

  • Mention “Torah.” first (not in italics), then book followed by chapter: verse.

The Qur’an

Structure:

Qur’an Surah or chapter: verse (Year) Translated by Translator’s First Name Last Name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Qur’an 20: 24 (2010) Translated by Abdel Haleem, M.A.S. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Note:

  • Mention “Qur’an” first (not in italics), then Surah or chapter: verse, year of publication, translator, and place of publication: publisher.

Harvard Citing Articles in Periodicals

Journal article

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Journal Title, volume(number), pp. xx-xx.

Example:

Breslau, J. and Engel, C. (2016) ‘Information and communication technologies in behavioral health: a literature review with recommendations for the air force’, RAND Health Quarterly, 5(4), pp. 17-18.

Note:

  • If a journal has no issue, it should be omitted.
  • If an article is printed on one page, “p.” should be used instead of “pp.”
  • If there is a colon in the title of an article, do not capitalize the subtitle.
  • Capitalize all the words except conjunctions and articles only in the journal title.

Journal article (no author)

Structure:

‘Article title: subtitle’ (Year) Journal Title, volume(number), pp. xx-xx.

Example:

‘Perioperative blood salvage’ (2006) Vox Sanguinis, 91(2), pp. 185-192.

Online journal article with doi

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Journal Title, volume(number), pp. xx-xx. doi: xxxxxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Williams, J. (2000) ‘Tools for achieving sustainable housing strategies in rural Gloucestershire’, Planning Practice & Research, 15(3), pp.155–174. doi: 10.1080/02697450020000131

Online journal article without doi

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Journal Title, volume(number). Available at: http://www.link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Springborn, M. (2015) ‘Accounting for behavioral responses during a flu epidemic using home television viewing’, BMC Infectious Diseases, 15(21). Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/15/21 (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Magazine article in print

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Magazine Title, volume(number), p. xx.

Example:

Biello, D. (2011) ‘Coal fires burning bright’, Scientific American, 304(March), p. 14.

Note:

  • Enter month(s) in the issue number field in brackets.

Online magazine article

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Magazine Title, volume(number). Available at: http://www.link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Rosner, H. (2018) ‘Palm oil is unavoidable. Can it be sustainable?’, National Geographic, (December). Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2018/12/palm-oil-products-borneo-africa-south-america-environment-impact/ (Accessed: 4 December 2018).

Newspaper article in print

(Video) Harvard Referencing (In-text citation): Academic Writing Skills

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Newspaper Title, Date Month, p. xx.

Example:

O’Sallivan, J. (2016) ‘Sanders, Clinton fight on credentials’, The Boston Globe, 4 February, p. 3.

Note:

  • Make sure that you add a full publication date (year, day, and month) with no shortenings. Do not forget that it should be separated by the article and newspaper titles.
  • Capitalize all words except conjunctions and articles only for the name of a newspaper.

Newspaper article without author

Structure:

Newspaper Title (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Date Month, p. xx.

Example:

The Independent (2014) ‘Google Doodle honours Emmeline Pankhurst’, 15 July, p.1.

Note:

  • When no author is given, the title of the newspaper becomes the author.

Online newspaper / magazine article

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title: subtitle’, Periodical Title: Section, Date Month. Available at: http://www.link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Baker, P. and Stolberg, S.G. (2018) ‘Bush’s coffin arrives at capitol, where the former President will lie in state’, The New York Times: Politics, 3 December. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/03/us/politics/trump-george-bush-capitol.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage (Accessed: 4 December 2018).

Note:

  • When referencing a section of a newspaper where page numbers may be the same as in the main part of the paper or absent, mention the section (e.g., Newspaper: Section).

Harvard Citing Conferences

Full conference proceedings

Structure:

Editor’s Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (eds.) (Year) Conference Title. City, Country, Date Month. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Gretzel, U., Law, R. and Fuchs, M. (eds.) (2010) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism. Lugano, Switzerland, 10-12 February. Vienna: Springer.

Paper from a published conference proceedings

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Paper title’, Conference Title. University, City, Country, Date Month. Place of publication: Publisher, pp. xx-xx.

Example:

Tran, C.K., Tseng, C.D. and Lee, T.F. (2016) ‘Improving the face recognition accuracy under varying illumination conditions for local binary patterns and local ternary patterns based on Weber-Face and singular value decomposition’, 3rd International Conference on Green Technology and Sustainable Development (GTSD) conference proceedings. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 24-25 November. Danvers: Conference Publishing Services, pp. 5-9.

Note:

  • Make sure to include location and date of conference followed by place of publication and publisher.
  • If an article is printed on one page, “p.” should be used instead of “pp.”

Paper from conference proceedings available online

Structure:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Paper title’, Conference Title. City, Country, Date Month. doi: xxxxxxxxxx

Example:

Mendes, L. and Romão, T. (2011) ‘Children as teachers’, Proceedings of the 8th international conference on advances in computer entertainment technology, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 November. doi: 10.1145/2071423.2071438

Harvard Citing Dissertations/Theses

Dissertation/thesis in print

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) Dissertation/thesis title. Degree statement. Degree awarding body.

Example:

Smith, W.B. (2012) Data structures and principles of programming. PhD thesis. University of Calgary.

Note:

  • Make sure to include degree statement and degree awarding body (for example, “PhD thesis. University of Calgary.”)

Online dissertation/thesis

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. and Last Name, Initials. (Year) Dissertation/thesis title. Degree statement. Degree awarding body. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Deines, T. (2007) Global warming coverage in the media: trends in a Mexico City newspaper. PhD Thesis. Kansas State University. Available at: http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2097/497/TinaDeines2007.pdf?sequence=4 (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Note:

  • If the thesis is available online, provide a current link and fill in the date that you last accessed the document.

Harvard Citing Websites

Document on World Wide Web

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Document title. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Folkman, J. (2013) Top 9 leadership behaviors that drive employee commitment. Available at: http://zengerfolkman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/ZFA-9-Behaviors.pdf (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Note:

  • Be sure not to use quotation marks for the title of a page but make it italicized.

Document on World Wide Web (no author)

Structure:

Document title (Year) Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Seven steps for effective leadership development (2012) Available at: http://www.oracle.com/us/media1/steps-effective-leadership-dev-1657106.pdf (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Web page with neither author nor title

Structure:

http://link.com (Year) (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

https://www.brookes.ac.uk(2014) (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Web page with neither author, title, nor date

Structure:

http://link.com (no date) (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

https://www.brookes.ac.uk(no date) (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Image on World Wide Web

Structure:

Artist’s Last Name, Initials. (Year) Image title. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (2016) Available at: https://fthmb.tqn.com/oYE4xPDfBJJLBn8LcdE-6rz6Gng=/768×0/filters:no_upscale()/about/hierarchy-of-needs-56a791433df78cf772972cac.png (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Blog

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Blog title’ Weblog, Date Month. (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Witt, D. (2017) ‘When facing pressure, don’t just try to survive: learn to thrive’. Weblog, 25 January. (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Note:

  • Be sure to add the entire date when the blog post was published.

Facebook

Structure:

Facebook page title (Year) [Facebook]Date Month. Available at: http://www.facebook.com/ (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Tynemouth outdoor pool (2012) [Facebook] 29 August. Available at: http://www.facebook.com/ (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Twitter

(Video) Formatting AMA Style paper, 10th edition

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) [Twitter]Date Month. Available at: http://www.link.com/ (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Fry, S. (2012) [Twitter] 13 January. Available at: http://twitter.com/stephenfry (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Computer programs

Structure:

Corporation Name. (Year) Program name (Version x) [Computer program]. Available at: http://www.link.com/ (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

TechSmith Corporation (2012) Camtasia Studio (Version 3) [Computer program]. Available at: http://techsmith.com/download.html (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Films and video recordings

Structure:

Film title (Year) Directed by First Name Last Name [Film]. Place: Company.

Example:

Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) Directed by Michael Moore [Film]. Santa Monica, Calif: Lions Gate Films.

Note:

  • Add either [Film] or video record medium in square brackets (for example, [DVD], [Blu-ray])

YouTube videos

Structure:

Name (Year) YouTube video title. Available at: http://www.link.com/ (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Leponline (2008) Ask the experts – plastering a wall. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9wpcellxCU (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Television programs

Structure:

Film title (Year) Chanel, Date Month.

Example:

The Apprentice (2012) BBC One Television, 23 June.

‘Asylum of the Daleks’ (2012) Doctor Who, Series 33, episode 1. BBC One Television, 1 September.

Note:

  • If an episode is cited, enter episode title first in single quotes.

Grand Designs (2011) Channel 4 Television, 28 September. Available at: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grand-designs/episode-guide/series-7/episode-30 (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Note:

  • If you cite a TV program available online, make sure to provide a link and state the date of access)

Newspaper interview

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Interview title.’Interview with First Name Last Name. Interview by First Name Last Name for Newspaper title, Date Month.

Example:

Riley, B. (2008) ‘The life of Riley’. Interview with Bridget Riley. Interview by Jonathan Jones for The Guardian, 5 July.

Television interview

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Interview with First Name Last Name. Interview by First Name Last Name for Chanel, Date Month.

Example:

Blair, A. (2003). Interview with A. Blair. Interview by Jeremy Paxman for Newsnight, BBC Two Television, 2 February.

Interview published on the internet

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Interview by First Name Last Name for Website, Date Month. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Obama, B. (2008). Interviewed by Terry Moran for ABC News, 19 March. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/Vote2008/Story?id=4480133 (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Press releases / announcements

Structure:

Corporation Name. (Year) Press release title [Press release]. Date Month. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Google Inc. (2012) Google Maps heads north … way north [Press release]. 23 August. Available at: http://www.google.com/intl/en/press (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Harvard Citing Lectures

Lectures and course materials

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Lecture title’. Module code: Module title. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Stellar, V. (2016) ‘Introduction to Java Week 5 Lecture’. MIT6_092IAP10: Access control, class scope, packages, Java API. Available at: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-092-introduction-to-programming-in-java-january-iap-2010/download-course-materials/ (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Note:

  • Module code and title are to be separated by colon and written in Italics.

PowerPoint presentations

Structure:

‘Lecture title’ (Year) [PowerPoint presentation]. Module code: Module title. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

‘Module 1: the accounting’ (2012) [PowerPoint presentation]. ACC5203. Available at: http://usqstudydesk.usq.edu.au (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Note:

  • Add [PowerPoint presentation] as supplement after the title
  • If no author, put title in the first place

Messages from course discussion boards

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) ‘Title’. Title of discussion board, in Module code: Module title. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Thomas, D. (2008) ‘Word count and referencing style’. Frequently Asked Questions discussion board, in PHYS 2011: Housing Studies. Available at: http://duo.dur.ac.uk/ (Accessed: 14 October 2012).

Lectures / seminars / webinars / PowerPoint presentations / videoconferences

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Lecture title [Lecture to Course], Module code: Module title. University. Date Month.

Example:

Brown, T. (2012) Contemporary furniture [Lecture to BSc Design Year 4], DE816: Design for Industry. Northumbria University. 21 April.

Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards

Structure:

Last Name, Initials. (Year) Electronic discussion post, Discussion list, Date Month. Available email: [emailprotected]

Example:

Peters, W.R. (2013) International finance questions, British Business School Librarians Group discussion Iist, 11 March. Available email: [emailprotected]

Note:

Entire discussion groups or bulletin boards

Structure:

Discussion list (Year) Available email: [emailprotected] Accessed: Date Month Year).

(Video) How to cite & reference in Harvard style

Example:

Photography news Iist (2013). Available email: [emailprotected] (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Harvard Citing Government Documents

Acts and statutes

Structure:

Act Title (Year), c. xx. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Health and Social Care (Control of Data Processing) Act (Northern Ireland) 2016 (2016), c. 12. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nia/2016/12/contents (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Legal material papers

Structure:

Government Body (Year) Legal material title. (Series). Place: Publisher.

Example:

Parliament. House of Commons (2000) Compensating victims of violent crime, Session 1999-2000. (HC 1999-2000 472). London: The Stationery Office.

Law Commission reports and consultation papers

Structure:

Government Body (Year) Legal material title. (Number). Place: Publisher.

Example:

Law Commission (2017) 13th Programme of Law Reform. (Law Com No 377, HC 640). London: The Stationery Office.

Departmental publications

Structure:

Government Body (Year) Legal material title. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

Ministry of Justice (2011) Sentencing statistics quarterly brief: July to September 2010, England and Wales (Provisional data). Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/218041/sentencing-statistics-brief-july-sept-2010.pdf (Accessed: 24 November 2018).

Legal reports (cases)

Structure:

‘Case Title’(Year), Title of law report, volume. Database title [Online]. Available at: http://link.com (Accessed: Date Month Year).

Example:

R v K (M) (R v Gega, MK v R) (2018) EWCA Crim, 667. BAILII [Online]. Available at: http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Crim/2018/667.html (Accessed: 7 December 2018).

Harvard In-Text Citations

One author/editor

Direct quote: A personal tone is established on the very first page: “In my junior high yearbook I had a quote from a Spanish poet” (Sebold, 2002, p. 5).

Paraphrasing: The narrator reveals a lot of personal details throughout the story (Sebold, 2002).

Note: use page numbers only when summarizing an idea from a particular page.

Two or three authors/editors

Direct quote: Lankshear, Smith, and Knobel (2006, p. 17) argue that “The cultural and critical facets of knowledge integral to being literate are considerable”.

Paraphrasing: Literacy encompasses many aspects of knowledge (Lankshear, Smith and Knobel, 2006, p. 17).

Four or more authors/editors

Direct quote: Evans et al. (2003, p. 137) state that the Australian colonists aimed “to eliminate the political rights of Aborigines” in the late 19th century.

Paraphrasing: Between 1870 and 1890, many efforts have been made to constrict the rights of the indigenous populations (Evans et al., 2003, p. 137).

Corporate author

Direct quote: The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and New Zealand (2016, p. 18) claims that “the relief in AASB 128 should apply to the ultimate Australian entity”.

Paraphrasing: The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and New Zealand (2016, p. 18) explains the use of the relief in AASB 128.

Source with no author/editor

Direct quote: The Oxford dictionary of abbreviations (1998, p. ix) explains that in the pronunciation guide, “Unstressed syllables are not preceded by stress marks”.

Paraphrasing: It is common for unstressed syllables not to be preceded by stress marks (The Oxford dictionary of abbreviations, 1998, p. ix).

Multiple sources

Paraphrasing: In both works, the author uses remote locations to emphasize the feeling of helplessness (King, 2008; King, 2010).

Same year/same author

Paraphrasing: In both works, the author uses remote locations to emphasize the feeling of helplessness (King, 2008a; King, 2008b).

Same work, different editions

Paraphrasing: Despite the structural similarities between the two editions, there are still some differences in the topics covered (Feldman, 2008; 2011).

Source quoted in another work

Direct quote: “Green’s study (1999) (cited in Farmer, 2003, p. 13), unlike many of its predecessors, explores the “macro-logics of power” without sacrificing ethnographic depth”.

Note: you can either use a direct quote from the later work that quotes the earlier source or use a paraphrase to summarize the original idea from the primary source that is addressed in the secondary source. Both cases require you to acknowledge the use of secondary source in the work you are using for reference.

The Bible

Either direct quote or paraphrasing: (Matthew 5: 3–12)

The Torah

Either direct quote or paraphrasing: (Shernot 3: 14)

The Qur’an

Either direct quote or paraphrasing: (Qur’an 20: 24)

Journal article

Direct quote: “Despite the lack of solid research evidence to date, ICTs hold promise in addressing the challenges of mental health care” (Breslau and Engel, 2016, p. 17).

Paraphrasing: Breslau and Engel (2016, p. 17) state that, in the future, ICTs could be used to diagnose and treat patients with mental dysfunctions and illnesses.

Journal article (no author)

Direct quote: The DUP leader states that the upcoming Assembly election “should not be seen as a referendum on her handling of the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) scheme” (‘Assembly election: most important vote since 1998’, 2017, para. 2).

Newspaper article without author

Paraphrasing: The Independent (2014) states that …

Web page

Direct quote: “The key sign of central diabetes insipidus is extreme thirst and excessive urination” (WebMD, 2016, para. 3).

Paraphrasing: It is a common misconception that the disease called central diabetes insipidus is related to diabetes and caused by metabolic dysfunction (WebMD, 2016, para. 1).

Video or film

Direct quote: “The front lines of the invasion moved west to the nations of the Ohio Valley: The Lenape, Shawnee, Miami and others” (500 nations, 1995).

Lecture

Direct quote: As stated by Stellar (2016, p. 13), the classification of public and public class “applies to any field or method”.

Paraphrasing: The main reason for the importance of imposing access control is the need to protect the private information of students and staff (Stellar, 2016, p, 16).

Government publication

Direct quote: A recent review of the cooperation practices used in PFRAs and the local universities revealed that “about half of the research users indicated that they obtained a high or very high level of value from the collaboration” (Department of Education, Science and Training, 2004, p. 4).

Paraphrasing: The review outlines the opportunities to enhance the cooperation between PFRAs and the universities (Department of Education, Science and Training, 2004).

Tables and Figures in Harvard Style

When using the Harvard style, you can insert tables and figures in the middle of the text without the need to move them to a special appendix. As such, you do not have to refer the reader to the end of the paper and can write more naturally. You should provide the full reference to the source of the object you will be using in your bibliography. Then, when inserting the table of the figure, provide them with a heading of “Table (Figure) #: Name (Normal Author-Date In-Text Reference). If you are trying to refer to a source such as print, which does not allow you to copy and paste the object directly, you can refer to it as you would to a text citation, though you should make sure to mention the page. Some books will have plates with images inserted between pages, and in this case, you will have to cite the plate number, using “plate #” instead of “page #.” When referring to the table or figure in the text, you should consider it part of the document and write something similar to “As can be seen in table #.” Remember to follow the basic format guidelines for online sources, such as the access date and the URL, enclosed in angle brackets.

Harvard Citation Style Guide (10th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (6)

Figure 1: Glass world (2018).

Reference List

Glass world (2018) Available at: https://www.environmentalscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/NEPA-CEQA-640×425.jpeg (Accessed 17 August 2019).

Harvard Format Essay Examples

FAQs

How do you reference guidelines in Harvard style? ›

Organisation/Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of guideline [online] (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher. Guideline number (if stated).

How do you cite a citation within a citation Harvard? ›

In-Text Citations

Harvard citations, as well as the author name and year of publication for the secondary reference, should include the name and date for the source in which you found it mentioned: According to Jones (1994 cited in Smith, 2006), citing secondary sources is simple.

What are the example of references? ›

References: Common Reference List Examples
  • Article (With DOI)
  • Article (Without DOI)
  • Book.
  • Chapter in an Edited Book.
  • Dissertations or Theses.
  • Legal Material.
  • Magazine Article.
  • Newspaper Article.

How do you write an essay in Harvard style? ›

Typically, a paper that uses Harvard referencing has the following format:
  1. 2.5 cm OR 1-inch margins on all sides.
  2. Recommended fonts: Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman, with double-spacing.
  3. Title is in the center of the page just above the text.
  4. Left-aligned text, with the first sentence of every paragraph indented by 0.5 inch.
25 Oct 2020

How do you reference a website in Harvard style examples? ›

Author surname, initial. [username] (Year) 'Title' or text. [Website name] Day Month. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

How do you Harvard reference a website in-text? ›

Basic elements you need to reference a web page / document
  1. Author (person or organization)
  2. Year (or most recent date page created or revised)
  3. Title of the website / webpage / blog / document / etc.
  4. Name of website.
  5. Date accessed (Day Month Year)

How many types of Harvard referencing are there? ›

We've compiled a list of citation examples in the Harvard style. These include the five most commonly cited materials: book; journal article; chapter in edited collection; website; cited by another author.

How do you Harvard reference an author within text? ›

In-Text-Citation: Secondary Author Last name (Year, page no.) cites Original Author's surname (Year).... (Original Author Last name, Year, cited in Secondary Author Last name, Year, Page no.)

How do you reference in an essay? ›

MLA: Parenthetical In-Text Citations

MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.

How do you Harvard reference a quote from another author? ›

Citing something that someone else has cited:
  1. Format - in-text citation. Author of the quote (Year, cited in Author of resource you have seen, year, page no.)
  2. In-text citation: Include the author and year of both texts, and the page of the citation you are quoting from. ...
  3. Reference List.
24 Apr 2022

How do you list citations? ›

A standard MLA Works Cited entry is structured as follows: Author. “Title of the Source.” Title of the Container, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Only include information that is available for and relevant to your source.

What is citation in research example? ›

A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper. The way in which you document your sources depends on the writing style manual your professor wants you to use for the class [e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, etc.].

How do you write a reference in a report example? ›

To reference a report with an individual author, include the author's name and initials, the report title (italicized), the report number, the organization that published it, and the URL (if accessed online, e.g. as a PDF).

What is Harvard outline format? ›

It is a structured outline that lays out your ideas for an essay before you put all the effort into writing it. It is composed of phrases and key words only. NO COMPLETE SENTENCES! The focus is on the thesis and the topic sentences: the four most important components of your essay!

How do you cite a website in an essay example? ›

Author last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.

What makes a good essay? ›

An essay should have a single clear central idea. Each paragraph should have a clear main point or topic sentence. Each paragraph should support or expand the central idea of the paper. The idea of each paragraph should be explained and illustrated through examples, details, and descriptions.

How do you Harvard reference a PDF? ›

Author Surname, Initial(s)./Company Name (Publication year) Title. Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

How do you write an author name in Harvard referencing? ›

author's surname (family name) and initials. The family name must be written in full and initials used to represent given (first) names. You only need to provide initials for the first and middle names, but do include initials for all middle names provided by the source.

How do you cite two sources in one sentence? ›

When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. Place citations with no date first, followed by works with dates in chronological order.

Do you have to reference every sentence Harvard? ›

If you are paraphrasing from one source throughout a paragraph, don't worry about putting a citation after every sentence. Putting a citation at the end of the paragraph is fine (there should be at least one citation at the end of each paragraph if the material is paraphrased).

How do you reference an article? ›

Referencing journal articles
  1. Author(s) of the article. ...
  2. Year of publication (in round brackets).
  3. Title of the article.
  4. Title of the journal, which must be in italics.
  5. Volume and issue number (issue number in brackets).
  6. First and last page numbers of the article (separated by a dash -).

What are the 3 types of citations? ›

APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities. Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts.

What are the 2 types of referencing? ›

The two types of referencing styles are the author-date system and documentary note system.

What are the 4 common citation styles? ›

Referencing styles. There are four widely-used referencing styles or conventions. They are called the MLA (Modern Languages Association) system, the APA (American Psychological Association) system, the Harvard system, and the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) system.

How do you start a sentence with a reference? ›

A 'narrative' in-text citation incorporates the citation information within the text you are writing. Spencer (2006) notes that it is acceptable "to state the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, rather than always putting it in the parenthetical citation" (pp. 5-6).

How do you Harvard reference at the end of a sentence? ›

Using in-text citations

The last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are generally needed. They can appear within a sentence or at the end of a sentence before the full stop eg. .... this week (Brown 2019). A page number is included for a direct quote.

How do you cite a sentence? ›

Basic Guidelines

Signal phrase reference (author's name) appears within the sentence with page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Full parenthetical reference (author last name and page number) appears at the end of the sentence.

How do you use reference in a sentence? ›

Examples of reference in a Sentence

Reference to a map will make the position clear. She listed her former teacher as a reference when she applied for the job. Her former teacher gave her a reference when she applied for the job. Her teacher gave her a letter of reference.

How many references should a 5000 word essay have? ›

3000 word essay: 20 sources (or more) listed in the reference list. 5000 word essay: 33 sources (or more) listed in the reference list.

How do you cite a sentence that is already cited? ›

Your in-text citation should include both authors: the author(s) of the original source and the author(s) of the secondary source. For example: (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987). In your reference list you should provide the details of the secondary source (the source you read).

What does Harvard referencing look like in text? ›

An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference. In Harvard style, citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

Is Harvard and APA the same? ›

The key difference between APA and Harvard referencing is that APA referencing style is mainly used to cite education, social and behavioral science related academic work whereas Harvard Referencing style is mainly used for academic scientific writing.

How do you reference a website in Harvard style examples? ›

Author surname, initial. [username] (Year) 'Title' or text. [Website name] Day Month. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Why do we use Harvard referencing? ›

The main reason that referencing is important for both you and your peers, is that plagiarism is a very real and serious accusation, and ensuring that you are acknowledging someone else's research and ideas reduces the possibility that you could be accused of this.

How do you Harvard reference a quote in an essay? ›

The Harvard Style dictates that when using another's exact words, known as direct quotation, then those words must be placed in inverted commas/quotation marks ('' or "") followed by an in-text citation that includes the Author Last name, Year and page numbers.

What is in-text citation example? ›

Using In-text Citation

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.

How do you reference a PDF Harvard style? ›

Author Surname, Initial(s)./Company Name (Publication year) Title. Available at: URL (Accessed: Date). Example: Kelly Services (2020) 2019 annual report.

What are the 2 types of referencing? ›

The two types of referencing styles are the author-date system and documentary note system.

What are the 3 types of citations? ›

APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities. Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts.

Is Harvard MLA or APA? ›

The MLA citation format as depicted by the name is predominantly used in the realms of arts and humanities. The APA style is frequently used within the social sciences. However, the Harvard referencing style is used in the humanities and natural or social sciences.

How do you write an author name in Harvard referencing? ›

author's surname (family name) and initials. The family name must be written in full and initials used to represent given (first) names. You only need to provide initials for the first and middle names, but do include initials for all middle names provided by the source.

How do you reference in an essay? ›

MLA: Parenthetical In-Text Citations

MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.

What is Harvard referencing also known as? ›

Parenthetical referencing, also known as Harvard referencing, is a citation style in which partial citations—for example, "(Smith 2010, p. 1)"—are enclosed within parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence.

What are the 6 purpose of citation? ›

Citations have several important purposes: to uphold intellectual honesty (or avoiding plagiarism), to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the ...

How do you write references? ›

List of References
  1. author.
  2. year of publication.
  3. article title (between single quotation marks)
  4. publication title (in italics with maximum capitalisation)
  5. date of article (day, month)
  6. page number.
7 Jul 2022

Videos

1. Harvard Citation and Referencing Tutorial
(Demetris Kyriacou)
2. Master Harvard Referencing within 10 minutes
(ACCELERATE AUSTRALIA)
3. Plagiarism and APA Citations 101 Video
(Peirce College Library)
4. Introduction to Citations
(The Lab at VaCC)
5. Ohio Writing Manual--Part 1: Ohio Citations
(Columbus State Library)
6. How to do Referencing | Referencing Styles & Tools | Vancouver, APA, Harvard, Chicago, AMA, MLA
(Kemistry)

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