Bluebook Citation Style Guide (20th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (2022)

This guide is developed in line with The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (the Columbia Law Review Association, the Harvard Law Review Association, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and the Yale Law Journal ed., 20th ed. 2015).

  1. What is Bluebook Citation Style?
  2. Why You Need to Cite Your Sources
  3. General Principles of Bluebook Formatting
    1. Notes on Citations
  4. Bluebook Footnote Citation
    1. Legal Citation
    2. Citation for Books, Reports, and Other Non-periodical Materials
    3. Article Citation
    4. Citation Websites and Electronic Media
    5. Citation for Other Sources
  5. Tables and Figures in Bluebook Style

What is Bluebook Citation Style?

The Bluebook style is exclusively used for legal papers, and so it can be somewhat complicated due to its focus on easy citations of various court documents. The form is a blend between in-text and footnote-based formats, as its citations are located in the text but appear more similar to footnote-based ones. You have to provide the author’s full name, the name of the book, the year of publication, and the page number for the relevant quotation or citation. As such, Bluebook shares some similarities with most other citation styles while closely emulating few to none.

Why You Need to Cite Your Sources

You may be familiar with the need to cite information, but many places also require you to follow a strict guide and a specific style while doing so. Here are some reasons why both of these aspects are critical for your writing and overall career:

  • The point of a paper is to show your understanding of the topic and then reach additional conclusions from there. You show this awareness by citing works in the field that support or oppose your findings.
  • The sources you use have to warrant the trust of a reader, meaning scholars should generally acknowledge them. Peer review is an essential practice that differentiates high-quality sources from inferior ones.
  • When you reference a source, you have to identify what it is and where it may be found in a form that is easy for the reader to understand. Hence, you should adhere to the template lest you commit some mistake that makes the citation unusable.
  • Ultimately, if you are caught plagiarizing, whether intentionally or not, you will be severely punished. You may even be expelled or fired from your organization, receiving a bad mark on your record that will severely tarnish it.

General Principles of Bluebook Formatting

  • Use any acceptable professional font, such as Times New Roman, Courier New, etc.
  • Italics are used in the body of the text for source names and stylistic purposes
  • Citations are designed to help the reader locate a source
  • Bluebook citation style is designed for both students and researchers to be used in academic writing (The Whitepages) and practitioners (clerks, lawyers, and other legal professionals) to be used in non-academic legal documents (The Bluepages)
  • Citation format of the Whitepages and the Bluepages differs in typeface and elements of citation
  • Authors and titles of books, including institutional authors, titles of periodicals are written in Large and Small Caps
  • Case names in text are written in Italics while in citations, they are written in normal font
  • Case names in text and in citations also differ by the extent to which the case name is abbreviated
  • If Whitepages guidelines fail to cover how to format the source, refer to Bluepages rules.
  • If no information on citing a particular type of document is available, cite it in accordance with the format of the closest alternative

Notes on Bluebook Citations

  • In law reviews, all citations must be included as footnotes
  • The footnote number should appear after the final punctuation of the quotation
  • In some procedural documents, citations can be made in a citation sentence or a citation clause
  • Introductory signals, such as e.g., accord, see, see also, Cf., and others are used to indicate the relationship between the citation and the text or other citations.
  • If no signal word is used, this means that the information was directly stated or cited by the chosen authority
  • Id. and short names are used to refer to sources that were mentioned recently:
  • Same source and page in two or more footnotes: Id.
  • Same source in two or more footnotes, different page numbers: Id., page number.
  • Same source used within the past 5 citations: Short citation (different for each document type).
Bluebook Citation Style Guide (20th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (1)

Bluebook Legal Citation

Cases

S. Pac. Co. v. Jensen, 244 U.S. 205, 225-26 (1917)

When citing legal cases, you need to include the following information (in order):

  • First party vs. Second party
  • Reporter volume number
  • Reporter abbreviation
  • First page of the case
  • Specific page referred to
  • Deciding court
  • Date of decision

If a decision has not been reached yet, include as much information as you can in place of the date of decision. For example, if a case was filed but not decided, include the filing date. If the case involves an interim order, whether published or unpublished, include an appropriate mark (order granting preliminary injunction) at the end of the citation in parentheses.

Constitutions

U.S. Const. amend. §1.
U.S. Const. art. I, § 9, cl. 2.

When citing constitutions, include the following information (in order):

  • Abbreviation of the constitution cited
  • Abbreviation for “amendment” (amend.), “article” (art.) or “clause” (cl.)
  • Number of the amendment cited
  • Section symbol and number
  • If the cited provision has been repealed or amended, add amendment date in parentheses or in text

Note: a short form other than id. is not allowed when citing constitutions

Statutes

National Emergency Management Act, 6 §§ 701-811 (2006)

Short form:

(Video) THE BLUEBOOK: CITATION GUIDE | EssayPro

6 U.S.C. § 701

If you need to cite a statute, such as an act, use the following data (in order):

  • Official name of the act
  • Code title number
  • Abbreviation of the code
  • Section containing the statute (with section symbols)
  • Date of code edition used

Bills and Resolutions

H.R. Res. 3452, 104th Cong. (1996)
S. Res. 95, 115th Cong. (2017)

Short forms:

H.R. 3452
S.R. 95

For bills and resolutions, use the following:

  • The name of the bill (if applicable)
  • The abbreviation of the house
  • Bill number
  • Congress number
  • Section number
  • Year of publication

Hearings

Challenges and Opportunities Facing America’s Schools and Workplaces: Hearing before the H. Comm. on Education and the Workforce, 113th Cong. (2013)

When citing committee hearings, you must include the following information:

  • Full subject matter title
  • Bill number (if applicable)
  • Subcommittee name (if applicable)
  • Committee name
  • Congress number
  • Session number (for State committee hearings)
  • Page number (if citing a specific page)
  • Year

Bluebook Citation for Books, Reports, and Other Non-periodical Materials

As a rule, when citing books, reports, and similar sources, you will need to provide:

  • Author’s full name
  • Title
  • Page cited
  • Editor(s) and translator(s) names (if applicable)
  • Edition number
  • Year of publication

The following page contains some examples of different sources cited in the Bluebook format.

Note: author name(s) and source titles are given in small and large caps.

Book with one or two authors

Rɪᴄʜᴀʀᴅ J. Lᴀᴢᴀʀᴜs, Tʜᴇ Mᴀᴋɪɴɢ ᴏғ Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ Lᴀᴡ 57 (2004).

Charles Alan Wright & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice And Procedure § 1006 (2d ed. 1987).

Book with more than two authors

Kᴀʀᴇɴ Wʜɪᴛᴇ ᴇᴛ ᴀʟ., Tʜᴇ Fᴏʀɢᴏᴛᴛᴇɴ Rᴏᴏᴍ 100 (2016).

(Video) How to Blue Book Citations

Or you may list all authors:

Kᴀʀᴇɴ Wʜɪᴛᴇ, Bᴇᴀᴛʀɪᴢ Wɪʟʟɪᴀᴍs & Lᴀᴜʀᴇɴ Wɪʟʟɪɢ, Tʜᴇ Fᴏʀɢᴏᴛᴛᴇɴ Rᴏᴏᴍ 100 (2016).

Book with editor or translator

Cᴀsᴇs ɪɴ Oɴʟɪɴᴇ Iɴᴛᴇʀᴠɪᴇᴡ Rᴇsᴇᴀʀᴄʜ 30 (Janet Salmons ed., 2011).

Note: do not write editor or translator names in small caps, use a regular font

Book with no author

Lᴀᴡᴍᴇɴ ᴀɴᴅ Oᴜᴛʟᴀᴡs 49-50 (Great Mountain West Supply 1997).

Note: include a publisher in parentheses

Multiple editions of the book

Sᴛᴜᴀʀᴛ Bᴇʟʟ ᴇᴛ ᴀʟ., Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ Lᴀᴡ 187 (8th ed. 2013).

Chapter in an edited book

Sᴛᴜᴀʀᴛ Bᴇʟʟ ᴇᴛ ᴀʟ., International Law and Environmental Protection, in Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ Lᴀᴡ 136 (8th ed. 2013).30.

Bluebook Article Citation

Scholarly journal article

Bernard M. Bass & Paul Steidlmeier, Ethics, Character, and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behavior, 10Lᴇᴀᴅ. Qᴜᴀʀ. 181, 210-212 (1999).
Short form: Bass & Steidlmeier, supra note 1 (first note cited), at page number.

For articles published in scholarly journals, include the following:

  • Author’s name
  • Article title
  • Journal volume number
  • Abbreviated journal title
  • First page of the article
  • Specific page(s) cited
  • Year of publication

Magazine Articles and Newspapers

Declan Walsh & Eric Schmitt, Arms Sales to Saudis Leave American Fingerprints on Yemen’s Carnage, N.Y. Tɪᴍᴇs, Dec. 25, 2016, at 2.
Short form: Walsh & Schmitt, supra note 1 (first note cited), at page number.

For magazine and newspaper articles, provide the information as listed below:

(Video) Harvard Bluebook Citation 21st Edition | Citation and Referencing | Legally Sorted

  • Author’s name
  • Article title
  • Magazine or newspaper title (shortened)
  • Date of publication
  • First page

Bluebook Citation Websites and Electronic Media

The Bluebook citation handbook strongly advises against including electronic sources in the bibliography if they can be cited as a printed source. The following examples are for reference only, and you should still check if a printed version of a source is available before citing it as an electronic source.

Web page

Aᴄᴄᴏʀ Hᴏᴛᴇʟs, Cᴏᴍᴍɪᴛᴍᴇɴᴛ, https://www.accorhotels.group/en/commitment (last visited Dec. 26, 2018).

PDF documents (corporate author)

Tʜᴇ Cᴏᴄᴀ-Cᴏʟᴀ Cᴏᴍᴘᴀɴʏ, 2017 Sᴜsᴛᴀɪɴᴀʙɪʟɪᴛʏ Rᴇᴘᴏʀᴛ (2018), https://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2018/2017-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf

PDF document (individual author)

Xiao-Ping Chen, et al., Affective Trust in Chinese Leaders: Linking Paternalistic Leadership to Employee Performance, 40 J. Mᴀɴ. 796, 797 (2014), http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.908.4532&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Blogs

Dave Owen, The New WOTUS Proposed Rule and the Myths of Clean Water Act Federalism, Eɴᴠɪʀᴏɴᴍᴇɴᴛᴀʟ Lᴀᴡ Pʀᴏғ. Bʟᴏɢ (Dec. 13, 2018, 1:21 PM), https://lawprofessors.typepad.com/environmental_law/2018/12/the-new-wotus-proposed-rule-and-the-myths-of-clean-water-act-federalism.html.

Bluebook Citation for Other Sources

There are many other types of sources that you might be required to cite in the Bluebook format. Some examples will be included below. Sources that do not match any of the categories in the guide should be cited like the next best alternative included in the guide.

Note: Short forms for these sources should be created using the abbreviations “supra” or “id.”

Student-written law review materials

Abraham Bell & Gideon Parchomovsky, Article, The Case for Imperfect Enforcement of Property Rights, 160 U. Pᴀ. L. Rᴇᴠ. 1927, 1929-1930 (2012).

Proceedings, regular publications by institutes, and ABA section reports

Sarah Zappe et al., Flipping the Classroom to Explore Active Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course, 116 ASEE Aɴɴ. Cᴏɴғ. Exᴘ. Pʀᴏᴄ.284 (2009).

Unpublished and forthcoming sources

Stephen B. Burbank & Tobias Barrington Wolf, Class Actions, Statutes of Limitations and Repose, and Federal Common Law, 167 U. Pᴀ. L. Rᴇᴠ. (forthcoming Dec. 2018)

E-mail correspondence

(Video) Introduction to Citation and Bluebook

E-mail from Anna Smith, Dir. of Operations, Organization, to Jayden Smith, Assoc. Prof., Organization (Dec. 25, 2018, 09:55 EST) (on file with author).

Interviews

Telephone interview with Margaret Wilson, Editor, Organization (Nov. 19, 2016).
Interview with Margaret Wilson, Editor, Organization, in City, State (Mar. 24, 1998).

Working papers

Jay P. Greene & Greg Forster, Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States 1 (Ctr. for Civic Innovation, Working Paper No. 3, 2003).

Note: “Ctr. for Civic Innovation” is the name of the sponsoring organization.

Intergovernmental Organizations

Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor et al., Sᴛᴀᴛᴇ ᴏғ Iɴᴇǫᴜᴀʟɪᴛʏ: Rᴇᴘʀᴏᴅᴜᴄᴛɪᴠᴇ, Mᴀᴛᴇʀɴᴀʟ, Nᴇᴡʙᴏʀɴ ᴀɴᴅ Cʜɪʟᴅ Hᴇᴀʟᴛʜ, Wᴏʀʟᴅ Hᴇᴀʟᴛʜ Oɢᴀɴɪᴢᴀɪᴛɪᴏɴ [WHO] (2015), http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/164590/9789241564908_eng.pdf.

lnt’l Civil Aviation Org. [ICAO], 2012 Annual Report of the Council, ICAO Doc. 10001 (2012), https://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/10001_en.pdf.

Tables and Figures in Bluebook Style

The Bluebook citation style is somewhat unique in its laissez-faire approach to the formatting of your paper. It exists to ensure that your citations are accurate and precise and limits itself to that task. As such, you are free to format tables and figures however you see fit. Nevertheless, it is probably best to follow some other styling format, so this guide will provide an example using the Chicago style of formatting (see figure 1).

Bluebook Citation Style Guide (20th ed.): Referencing & Citing with Examples (2)

Figure 1: Glass World.

Source: Environmental Science, Careers in Environmental Science, Nepa Ceqa Manager, https://www.environmentalscience.org/careers (last visited Jul. 19, 2019).

Notably, Bluebook does not require the use of a bibliography, so a single mention of the reference in the text is sufficient. However, it has remarkably strict rules about referencing that you can find in the book that gives its name to the style. As many images and figures will be taken from online sources, you should remember a few basic guidelines. First, the format discourages the use of any strictly online resources. Second, if you are citing an electronic version of a print document, you can mention it as though you were using that print document. However, if that document would be challenging to obtain, you should make it clear that you are using an electronic version in the reference. Lastly, you should think carefully before inserting tables or figures into a legal document, as they usually only contain formatted text.

Reference List

1. Glass world [image on the Internet] 2018. [cited August 18, 2019]. Available from: https://www.environmentalscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/NEPA-CEQA-640×425.jpeg

FAQs

How do you Bluebook cite 20th edition? ›

[Author's name], [Title of the article], [Journal Volume Number] [NAME OF THE JOURNAL (abbreviated)] [Starting Page of the Article], [Pages Cited] [(Year)].

What is Bluebook citation format? ›

The Bluebook citation format is a source system which involves a set of rules for referencing among law students and those in practice. In other words, it's the legal way to reference scholars of law.

How do you use Bluebook citation? ›

In addition, when writing a memo or brief for a client, see is used when citing to a case to support a proposition referring to the client or the client's case. Example 1: It is important to provide prisoners with proper medical care. See Estelle v. Gamble, 429 U.S. 97, 104 (1976).

How do I insert a Bluebook citation in Word? ›

On Westlaw, to copy text with the Bluebook (aka Standard) citation: Highlight the desired text in a document. When the dialog box automatically appears, click on Copy with Reference (Standard)​ Paste the text into a Word document.

How do you cite a case in Bluebook? ›

Just write the numerical. In case the book is being published by more than one publishing house, write the name of the publisher cited after the name of the editor in sentence case. Name of Author, Title of Article, Journal volume no. ABBREVIATION OF JOURNAL Page on which Article Begins, Page Cited (Year).

How do you Bluebook cite a research paper? ›

Bluebook Rule 16 covers citations to articles. A typical article citation follows the following format: Author's name, Title of Article, Journal Volume #, Abbreviation of Journal, Page on which article begins, span of specific pages being cited, date of publication.

What is a legal citation example? ›

Typically, a proper legal citation will inform the reader about a source's authority, how strongly the source supports the writer's proposition, its age, and other, relevant information. This is an example citation to a United States Supreme Court court case: Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 480 (1965).

Why is The Bluebook important? ›

During the course of your law school career, the blue book is the authoritative format. It is a fact of life. A legal citation follows a standard format which allows a lawyer to refer to legal authority so that other lawyers or judges can locate the document.

Who uses The Bluebook? ›

Law students and practitoners rely on The Bluebook, a uniform citation system, currently in its 21st edition. The Bluebook differentiates between the non-academic citation, used in court documents, and the academic citation, used in law review footnotes.

How do you cite a paragraph Bluebook? ›

If an authority like a looseleaf is organized by paragraph (¶), you should cite to the relevant paragraph. If an authority is organized by paragraphs that are not introduced by the ¶ symbol, use the abbreviation "para." instead. However, do not cite by paragraph if the authority is ordinarily cited by page.

How do you cite two cases in one sentence Bluebook? ›

If two or more cases are consolidated, cite only the first-listed parties of each side of the first-listed action. Do not include “et.

How do you cite two sources Bluebook? ›

When citing to sources that span more than one page, retain the last two digits, and drop the other repetitious digits. This rule does not apply when citing multiple sections of statutes or regulations. Separate the inclusive page numbers with a dash; there are no spaces between the numerals and the dash.

How do you cite a Word? ›

Add citations to your document

Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite, and then on the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Insert Citations. From the list of citations under Insert Citation, select the citation you want to use.

How do you insert a citation? ›

Create a bibliography, citations, and references
  1. Put your cursor at the end of the text you want to cite.
  2. Go to References > Style, and choose a citation style.
  3. Select Insert Citation.
  4. Choose Add New Source and fill out the information about your source.

How do you write a legal citation? ›

Legal Citation Basics

Most legal citations consist of the name of the document (case, statute, law review article), an abbreviation for the legal series, and the date. The abbreviation for the legal series usually appears as a number followed by the abbreviated name of the series and ends in another number.

How do you cite a case example? ›

To cite a court case or decision, list the name of the case, the volume and abbreviated name of the reporter, the page number, the name of the court, the year, and optionally the URL. The case name is italicized in the in-text citation, but not in the reference list.

How do you write a case brief example? ›

Steps to briefing a case
  1. Select a useful case brief format. ...
  2. Use the right caption when naming the brief. ...
  3. Identify the case facts. ...
  4. Outline the procedural history. ...
  5. State the issues in question. ...
  6. State the holding in your words. ...
  7. Describe the court's rationale for each holding. ...
  8. Explain the final disposition.

How do you cite online sources in Bluebook? ›

SOURCE-SPECIFIC FORMATTING: WEB PAGE CITATIONS

A citation to an internet web page generally contains the following information: (1) the author, (2) the title of the web page, (3) the title of the website, (4) the date and time, and (5) the URL.

How do you cite an article? ›

The basic format is as follows: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

How do you cite a footnote in Bluebook? ›

To cite a footnote, give the page on which the footnote appears, “n.,” and the footnote number, with no space between “n.” and the number. Example 1: Green v. Georgia, 442 U.S. 95, 97.

How are case citations written? ›

Citations of decisions published in a reporter usually consist of the name or abbreviation of the reporter, the year or volume, the page number where the decision begin (sometimes followed by an identifying number if more than one judgment is on a page), as well as the name or abbreviation of the court which decided ...

What is a citation in writing? ›

What is Citation? A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find the location details of that source on the reference or Works Cited page. A citation must include a set of parentheses.

What citation style do lawyers use? ›

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, print. The style most commonly used by lawyers and legal scholars.

What are the 3 major parts of The Bluebook? ›

The Bluebook contains three major parts: the Blue Pages, White Pages, and Tables.
  • Blue Pages (pp. 3-56): A how-to guide for basic legal citation. ...
  • White Pages (pp. 57-231): The primary rules of citation and style. ...
  • Tables (pp. 233-523): A series of tables to be used in conjunction with the rules.
4 Aug 2022

What are the four main parts of The Bluebook? ›

The Bluebook consists of four main sections. The first section is the "Bluepages," which provide information on basic legal citation.
...
Bluebook Layout.
Rule/TablePage Nos.Description
R582-86Formatting quotations
R1094-117Citing cases
R11118-119Citing constitutions
R12120-134Citing statutes
8 more rows
12 May 2022

Do lawyers use Bluebook? ›

Legal Citation in California

California state courts prefer for attorneys to use the California Style Manual but allow them to use the Bluebook. However, the courts always require attorneys to cite to the official reporters (Cal., Cal.

Why Bluebook is called Bluebook? ›

History. Butler University in Indianapolis was the first to introduce exam blue books, which first appeared in the late 1920s. They were given a blue color because Butler's school colors are blue and white; therefore they were named "blue books".

How long is Bluebook free trial? ›

A Key to Redeem a 30 Day Free Trial access to the Bluebook Online is provided with your purchase of the NEW 21st PRINT edition of The Bluebook.

How big is a Bluebook? ›

BookFactory Exam Blue Book/Blue Exam Book/Blue Test Book (10 Book Pack) (Ruled Format - 8.5" x 11" - 16 Numbered Pages) Saddle Stitched (LAB-016-7RSS (Exam Book)10 PK)

How do you cite a law string? ›

In a string citation, each authority follows the next in a proscribed order: (1) by strength of au- thority (primary before secondary, enacted law before case law); (2) by jurisdiction (federal before state, alphabetically among states); (3) by rank of court (highest to lowest court); and (4) by date (reverse ...

How do you cite a case that quotes another case? ›

Often, you want to indicate that a particular case or authority either is quoted in or quotes another authority. If you use “quoted in,” the phrase follows the cite, is separated from it by a comma, and is underlined (memo) or italicized (law review): Doe v. Johnson, 1111 F. 3d 111 (14th Cir.

How many times can you use ID in a row Bluebook? ›

In law reviews, there is often an unwritten rule not to use "ids." more than five times in a row. Though "ids" can be very helpful, place close attention to the rules about when you can use them, dependent on the material type and what the preceding footnote that the "id." is referring to contains.

How do you use the word cite in a sentence? ›

1) His citation says he showed outstanding and exemplary courage. 2) Turner was issued a traffic citation for reckless driving. 3) The essay begins with a citation from 'Hamlet'. 4) Space does not permit the citation of the examples.

How do you cite multiple paragraphs in Bluebook? ›

Per Bluebook Rule 3.3(c), use more than one paragraph symbol to indicate multiple paragraphs. Do not put a space between the two symbols (see examples above). It's customary to use “at” with appellate record cites, but the 19th edition does not require “at” with other page number references in record cites.

Do you abbreviate state names in legal citations Bluebook? ›

Standard practice is to abbreviate the listed words wherever they appear in an institutional party's name that is part of a citation and, in addition, to abbreviate any state or smaller geographic unit included in a party name unless it, standing alone, is the party name. (See § 4-500.)

How is ID used in legal writing? ›

"Id." is an all-purpose short form citation that may be used for any cited authority except internal cross-references. "Id." always refers to the immediately preceding cited authority, either in the same footnote or the previous footnote so long as it is the only authority cited in the preceding footnote.

How do you use see in a citation? ›

See. "See" indicates that the cited authority supports, but does not directly state, the proposition given. Used similarly to no signal, to indicate that the proposition follows from the cited authority. It may also be used to refer to a cited authority which supports the proposition.

How are footnotes used in legal writing? ›

Footnote numbers are placed in superscript, usually at the end of the sentence. If you are referring to a word, place the footnote number directly after the word. If you cite one source multiple times, use ibid or supra after the first citation rather than repeating the full citation.

How do you put citations in an essay? ›

MLA: Parenthetical In-Text Citations

MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used. The parenthetical reference should be inserted after the last quotation mark but before the period at the end of the sentence.

How do you write citations in a research paper? ›

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

How do you put References in a research paper? ›

Basic Citation Elements
  1. Author(s)
  2. Title(s)
  3. Source or venue name (e.g. name of the journal it was published or conference where it was presented)
  4. Editor(s)
  5. Volume and edition.
  6. Date or year of publication.
  7. Page numbers.
  8. City and country.
5 days ago

What are some examples of citations? ›

Using In-text Citation

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).

How do you cite your sources? ›

How does one cite a source?
  1. For books: author, title, place of publication, publisher, and publication year.
  2. For articles: author, title of article, title of journal, volume, issue, date, page numbers, and doi or permalink.
  3. For web page resources: author, title of page, Web address or URL, and date of access.
27 Aug 2022

What is the difference between bibliography and reference? ›

A reference list is used with in-text referencing styles (e.g. APA). It includes the details of all the cited sources in alphabetical order by family name. A bibliography is used with footnote referencing styles (eg. Chicago A).

What is citation Tool? ›

Citation tools (also called bibliographic management tools or citation managers) such as Endnote, Mendeley, RefWorks, and Zotero help you organize, manage and format citations for your research.

How do you cite cases in bluebook 20th edition India? ›

Case Laws: For citing Indian Cases first write the name of the case including both parties (versus as “v.”) then put a “comma” followed by the citation of that case. Then put (India). For example: A.K. Gopalan v.

What is the latest edition of the Bluebook? ›

The Bluebook is currently in its 21st edition, released in June 2020. It is available in two formats: as a print book, and as an electronic publication.

How do you short cite unpublished cases bluebook? ›

1(a)) has the following five elements:
  1. Name of the case (underlined or italicized and abbreviated according to Rule 10.2)
  2. Docket number.
  3. Database identifier.
  4. Name of the court (abbreviated according to Rule 10.4)
  5. Date the case was decided, including month (Table 12), day, and year.
12 May 2022

How do you cite a section in bluebook? ›

Therefore, the proper citation format is:
  1. The title number.
  2. The abbreviation of the code used (here, U.S.C.A. or U.S.C.S.)
  3. The section symbol (§) followed by a space and the section number containing the statute.
  4. The name of the publisher (West or LexisNexis)
  5. The year of the code.
2 Jun 2022

What are the four main parts of the Bluebook? ›

The Bluebook consists of four main sections. The first section is the "Bluepages," which provide information on basic legal citation.
...
Bluebook Layout.
Rule/TablePage Nos.Description
R582-86Formatting quotations
R1094-117Citing cases
R11118-119Citing constitutions
R12120-134Citing statutes
8 more rows
12 May 2022

How do you cite a footnote in bluebook? ›

To cite a footnote, give the page on which the footnote appears, “n.,” and the footnote number, with no space between “n.” and the number. Example 1: Green v. Georgia, 442 U.S. 95, 97.

How do you cite a rule? ›

To cite federal laws (also commonly referred to as statutes or acts) in APA Style, include the name of the law, “U.S.C.” (short for United States Code), the title and section of the code where the law appears, the year, and optionally the URL.

Do Lawyers use Bluebook? ›

Legal Citation in California

California state courts prefer for attorneys to use the California Style Manual but allow them to use the Bluebook. However, the courts always require attorneys to cite to the official reporters (Cal., Cal.

Why Bluebook is called Bluebook? ›

History. Butler University in Indianapolis was the first to introduce exam blue books, which first appeared in the late 1920s. They were given a blue color because Butler's school colors are blue and white; therefore they were named "blue books".

How do I access Bluebook? ›

To access the online version of The Bluebook, visit http://www.legalbluebook.com/.

What is a legal citation example? ›

Typically, a proper legal citation will inform the reader about a source's authority, how strongly the source supports the writer's proposition, its age, and other, relevant information. This is an example citation to a United States Supreme Court court case: Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 480 (1965).

How do you cite a paragraph bluebook? ›

If an authority like a looseleaf is organized by paragraph (¶), you should cite to the relevant paragraph. If an authority is organized by paragraphs that are not introduced by the ¶ symbol, use the abbreviation "para." instead. However, do not cite by paragraph if the authority is ordinarily cited by page.

How do you cite two cases in one sentence bluebook? ›

If two or more cases are consolidated, cite only the first-listed parties of each side of the first-listed action. Do not include “et.

How do you in text cite a law? ›

  1. In Text Citations. Any time a law or a court case is mentioned in the text of a paper, include an appropriate “in-text citation” (usually in parentheses). ...
  2. Court cases: (Griswold v. ...
  3. Statutes (named): (Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974) ...
  4. Statutes (no name): (18 U.S.C. § 2258)
9 Dec 2021

How do you cite online sources in Bluebook? ›

SOURCE-SPECIFIC FORMATTING: WEB PAGE CITATIONS

A citation to an internet web page generally contains the following information: (1) the author, (2) the title of the web page, (3) the title of the website, (4) the date and time, and (5) the URL.

How do you cite public law Bluebook? ›

Rule 13.2 holds that you should include in your citation the name of the bill, if relevant, the abbreviated name of the house, the number of the bill, the number of the Congress, the section, and the publication year. If there are multiple versions of the same bill, you can indicate such in a parenthetical.

Videos

1. Bluebook Citations: Cases - Part 1 // Law Review Write On Example
(Johnathan Chai)
2. Citing Statutes 20th Edition
(Allison Ortlieb)
3. APA 7 - Citing Federal Statutes
(Columbus State Library)
4. Legal referencing: Getting started with footnotes in AGLC4
(Charles Sturt University Library)
5. How to Cite in BlueBook or ALWD Video 1: Legal Writing Resources
(Professor Lee)
6. Bluebook Hack: Find an Example
(Gallagher Law Library)

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